Unit 2 - Key Area 3 (Biosphere) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2 - Key Area 3 (Biosphere) Deck (19)
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1

What is parent material?

The bedrock from which soil is formed

2

Name the five inputs of soil:

-Parent material
-Organisms
-Relief
-Climate
-Time

3

Chemical weathering

Breakdown of rock by chemicals like acids (acid rain/carbonic acid)

4

Biological weathering

Breakdown of rocks by organism growth (trees in crack of rock)

5

Physical weathering

Breakdown of rocks due to physical changes (freezethaw on rock surface)

6

Name two decomposers

Fungus and bacteria

7

What is leaching (in terms of soil)?

Leaching is movement of ions or minerals through the soil (forms aluminium or iron layers)

8

What is the composition of a Brown Earth soil?

-Soil is very mixed, no distinct layers
-Lots of macroinvertebrates (Earthworms) in soil
-Large layer of nutrient rich humus
-Found in areas of deciduous forest

9

A biofuel obtained by heating dried biomass in an oxygen-free environment. Also known as pyrolysis oil

Bio-crude oil

10

A diesel fuel derived from oils and fats in animals or plants?

Biodiesel

11

An alcohol made by fermentation of carbohydrates from plant
materials. It can be mixed with petrol as a fuel for vehicles

Bioethanol

12

Give the definition for biofuel

Combustible biomass or a fuel derived from biomass.

13

What is biogas?

Gas produced through the fermentation of organic matter

14

What is decomposition?

The breaking down of organic materials into smaller parts, especially by the action of decomposers

15

Layers of soil

Horizons

16

Layer of Aluminium/Iron in a Podzol soil

Elluvial layer (E-horizon)

17

Movement of soil materials from the E-horizon to lower in the soil

Illuviation

18

Advantage of biofuel use

-Less CO2 emissions
-Stable in terms of economy and fuel availability in the future
-Renewable
Easy to source and produce

19

Disadvantage of biofuel use

-Could be used as food source
-Not as much energy released per unit
-High cost of production
-Monoculture (reduces plant biodiversity)
-Large quantities of water used