Unit 2: Molecules of Life Flashcards Preview

Biology > Unit 2: Molecules of Life > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 2: Molecules of Life Deck (92):
1

means "large"

macro

2

means ‘many”

poly

3

means "part"

mer

4

individual units (“Building Blocks”).

monomers

5

Monomers are linked together by _______ bonds.

covalent

6

Organisms need polymers to stay intact so the strongest type of bond is used these bonds are called _______.

covalent

7

Macromolecules are formed by __________ or ______________ ________.

Dehydration or Condensation Reactions

8

Hydroxyl (OH) is removed from one molecule and Hydrogen (H) is removed from another This combination forms water. This orientation of molecules and making of a bond requires E.
Enzymes (most are proteins) help speed up the rate of the reaction.

Dehydration or Condensation Reactions

9

Does dehydration require energy?

yes

10

What helps speed up the rate of dehydration?

enzymes

11

Macromolecules are broken apart into individual monomers by _________ reaction.

Hydrolysis

12

means “split”

lysis

13

This process releases E in the bond breakage.
The process needs water (hydroxyl and hydrogen) to fill the open bonds on the monomers.
Enzymes speed up the rate of the reaction here too.

Hydrolysis reaction

14

Do hydrolysis reactions require energy?

no, they give off energy

15

Hydrolysis needs ______ (hydroxyl and hydrogen) to fill the open bonds on the monomers.

water

16

refers to Carbon

Carbo

17

refers to water.

hydrate

18

Carbohydrates are mainly ________.

sugars

19

Are the monomers or “building blocks” of carbohydrates.

Monosaccharides

20

sacch means _______

sugar

21

two monosaccharides linked together.

Disaccharides

22

di mean ______

two

23

Are the polymers in carbohydrates. They are many sugars linked together.

Polysaccharides

24

What is the chemical composition of carbohydrates?

The chemical composition is: Carbon = Oxygen; 2x as many hydrogen also present.

25

The names usually end with “ose”. Such as Fructose, Glucose, Sucrose.

Carbohydrates (sugars)

26

These are primary E sources for cells.

carbohydrates

27

E storage molecule in plants.

starch

28

E storage molecule in animals.

Glycogen

29

Structural component of plant cell walls.

cellulose

30

the most abundant organic compound on Earth.

cellulose

31

This is the exoskeleton of some animals and also Fungi cell walls.

Chitin

32

Examples of lipids (4)

fats, oils, waxes, and steroids.

33

Most lipids are ________ molecules. (hydrophobic or hydrophilic?)

hydrophobic

34

Lipids are mainly composed of ___________.

Hydrocarbons

35

Two main parts of lipids

Fatty Acid tails (The Hydrocarbon unit.)
3 Carbon Glycerol molecule (alcohol) to hold the whole molecule together.

36

What is the function of the 3 carbon glycerol molecule in lipids?

To hold the molecule together

37

Basic fats and oils

Triglycerols or Triglycerides

38

These fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen atoms. The molecule has no open bonds to put any more Hydrogen on. (These are solid at room temp.) (They usually are associated with animals.)These are the bad types of fat when it comes to our diet.

Saturated fats

39

These fats are solid at room temperature

saturated fats

40

These fats usually are associated with animals.

saturated fats

41

These have double or triple bonds that “could be broken” to add more Hydrogen to the fatty acid. (These are liquids at room temp.) (They usually are from plants, such as vegetable oil, sunflower oil, or peanut oil.)

Unsaturated fats

42

These fats are liquids at room temp. (2)

unsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats

43

These have numerous double or triple bonds in the fatty acid portion. (These are also liquids at room temp.) (They are also usually from plants.)

polyunsaturated fats

44

These fats are usually from plants (2)

Unsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats

45

These are oils turned solid by adding Hydrogen by breaking the double or triple bonds so in order to transform it into a saturated fat

Hydrogenated or Trans fats

46

These molecules replace a single fatty acid with a single Phosphate ion. (This part of the molecule is Hydrophilic. “philic” means “lover of” It loves water because the phosphate carries a negative charge. Remember water is polar. So the negative phosphate will be attracted to the positive hydrogen portion of water.) They still have 2 Fatty Acid tails. (These are the Hydrophobic portion of the molecule. They carry a neutral charge. Therefore are not attracted to water.)
Phospholipid Bi-layers (having 2 layers) are common for cell and organelle membranes.

Phospholipids

47

These lipids are made by combining alcohols with unsaturated oils. Such as girls lipsticks which also have coloring added to make the different shades.

Waxes

48

A steroid has ___ carbon rings with the top ring looking like a house

4

49

Cholesterol is also a ______ molecule, but it helps with cell membrane flexibility. All membranes need to have some cholesterol to remain flexible. Cholesterol in excess is bad for your health though.

steroid

50

Lipids are stored in ______ Tissue in animals. This can lead to obesity or even Atherosclerosis (Clogged Arteries).

Adipose

51

_______ make up greater than 50% of an organisms dry weight (referred to as biomass).

Proteins

52

The monomer “building blocks” of proteins

amino acids

53

There are ____ different Amino Acids that can be involved in making proteins. Proteins and enzymes usually have hundreds of Amino acids in their structure.

20

54

Individual Amino Acids (monomers) are bonded together by a _______ bond.

peptide

55

When we put many amino acids together, we get a _________ or protein.

polypeptide

56

_________ and ________ are the “work horses” of a cell. They carry out numerous functions within cells.

Proteins and enzymes

57

Arrangement and Quantity of ______ ______ affect the structure and function of that protein or enzyme. (Structure = Function)

amino acids

58

This refers to the sequence of bonded Amino Acids.

Primary structure

59

________ _______, in 1948, discovered the first protein Amino Acid sequence. It was for insulin.

Fredrick Sanger

60

______ ________ is really important; just look at the difference between Sickle-Cell Disease and normal red blood cells. Just changing the SIXTH amino acid in the primary sequence creates this horrible disease. The easy way to remember that it is the SIXTH amino acid that changed, remember the number of the devil 666. Bad number = bad disease.

Primary Sequence (1')

61

Hydrogen bonds between neighboring amino acids allow for overlapping and coiling to occur. These help fold up the protein into it’s unique shape. It allows for flexibility too.
(folding and coiling)

Secondary Structure (2')

62

A variety of bonds (covalent, ionic, hydrogen) between distant amino acids causes large folds in the protein. These help provide stability to the folded protein.

Tertiary Structure (3')

63

This is when two or more polypeptides are woven together.
Hemoglobin (Red Blood Cells have four proteins woven together to make it.)
Think “multiple woven together” for __________ structure.

Quaternary Structure (4')

64

The “unraveling” of a protein or enzyme causing it not to function

denaturation

65

What are the three causes of denaturation?

ph changes, salt concentration changes, and temperature changes.

66

The most common bonds that have been affected during denaturation are the weak _______ bonds associated with secondary structure.

hydrogen

67

monomers of nucleic acids

nucleotides

68

Polymers of nucleic acids are called ____ or ____- It depends on the 5 Carbon sugar present in the monomer.

DNA or RNA

69

These are the source of genes and hereditary information primarily.

Nucleic Acids

70

Enzymes end with -_____

ase

71

Proteins end with -_____

lin

72

acts as the acid; gives off H+

Carboxyl end (COOH)

73

can act as a base by accepting a third hydrogen

Amine end (NH2)

74

Central carbon that holds molecule together

alpha carbon

75

Most important part as it gives the amino acid its distinctly different properties; all 20 amino acids have different

R groups

76

Coiling in the secondary structure is called

Alpha helix

77

Overlapping in the secondary structure is called

Beta Pleated Sheets

78

Three components of nucleotides

1) a five carbon sugar (deoxyribose, ribose)
2) a phosphate group
3) a nitrogen base (ATGC)

79

This polymer is the “Master Million Dollar Blueprint”.
It is kept “safe” in the nucleus. (Nucleus is like a vault to keep the DNA in.) It is double stranded, has AGTC, it is long, and contains deoxyribose.

DNA

80

This polymer is like a “cheap 10 cent copy” of the DNA. It is disposable/recyclable. It makes messenger RNA and other RNA molecules. It is single stranded, short, contains ribose, and has AGCU.

RNA

81

Both _____ and _____ are chainlike and have 4 nitrogenous bases.

DNA and RNA

82

Big name small molecule. (These have 1 Carbon ring in the Nitrogen base.)
“Counting steps Takes you Up the Pyramid” is the easy way to remember them. (C, T, U)

Pyrimidines

83

Small name big molecule. (These have 2 Carbon rings in the Nitrogen base.)
“Alabama is Purely Greater than Auburn” or “Auburn is Purely Greater than Alabama” is an easy way to remember. It just depends on who you like more. (A, G)

Purines (A, G)

84

It is always a pyrimidine paired with a _____.

purine

85

Example of Structure = Function theme and Emergent Properties theme

pyrimidines and purines

86

_______ ______ and _______ _____ make the model for the DNA double helix in 1953.

James Watson and Francis Crick

87

The two sides of the DNA double helix are said to be __________. (They fit together perfectly.)

complimentary

88

One side has information to make proteins and enzymes (The Million Dollar Blueprint); other side is a protective cap for the Million Dollar Blueprint. It protects the sequence of nucleotides.

DNA double helix

89

Who "helped" James Watson and Francis Crick make the model for DNA.

Rosalind Franklin

90

The more Nucleotide sequence “genes” in common; the more _______ related the organisms are.

closely

91

The fewer Nucleotide sequence “genes” in common: the more ________ related they are.

distantly

92

Nucleotides are joined by a covalent bond called a _____________ _______.

phosphodiester bond