Unit 8: Biodiversity, Bacteria Kingdoms (8.3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 8: Biodiversity, Bacteria Kingdoms (8.3) Deck (54)
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1

Prokaryotes (Bacteria) are the _______ organisms and most ________ organisms on the planet.

oldest, adaptive

2

Examples of famous bacteria

Plague, TB, Cholera, Botulinum, and Anthrax.

3

Are most bacteria harmful?

No

4

Bacteria are essential for life to exist. They are involved in nutrient recycling – they are __________.

decomposers

5

Two domains of bacteria

Bacteria (common) and Archaea (extremophiles)

6

The genetic difference (between domains) is located in the small subunit of the _________'s RNA sequence.

ribosome (because all cells have ribosomes but not organelles)

7

All prokaryotes are ____cellular.

uni

8

The Three basic shapes of prokaryotes

Cocci (Means “round”.)
Bacilli (Means “rod”.)
Helical (Means “spiral”.)

9

Round prokaryote

Cocci

10

Rod prokaryote

Bacilli

11

Spiral prokaryote

Helical

12

Most prokaryotes will have a ______ ______. (This is not the same as a plant’s cell wall.)

cell wall

13

What is the cell wall primarily for?

protection

14

It also helps prevent the prokaryotes from bursting in an _______ environment. (The cell is _______ to water.)

aquatic, hypertonic

15

The cell wall is mainly composed of proteins and sugars. (These are called _________.)

peptidoglycans

16

Scientists perform a _____ staining for easy, fast identification of most bacteria.

Gram

17

(stain blue) (They possess a thick peptidoglycan layer.)

Gram +

18

(stain Red) (These posses a thin peptidoglycan layer between phospholipids layers.)

Gram -

19

are more dangerous to humans and are usually resistant to antibiotics.

Gram -

20

Some bacteria produce a _______ that covers the cell wall. The ________ is a sticky substance for adherence to surfaces. This capsule material is what actually makes people sick; not the bacteria.

capsule, capsule

21

Some prokaryotes have _______, or cilia/fimbraie, or a ______ body shape for movement.

flagella, helix

22

Some prokaryotes can move by “________”. (“Spitting” out a layer of mucous in front of them to slide on.)

sliming

23

refers to movement in response to a stimulus. (These terms could be used with any organism.)

Taxis

24

(_) indicates movement “toward”; (_) indicates movement “away”.

+, -

25

The ________ tells the type of stimulus. (photo-light; geo-gravity; rheo-current; chemo-chemical)

prefix

26

A prokaryote genome is about _/_____th the amount of a Eukaryotic cell genome.

1/1000

27

It consists of a single circular strand located in the _______ region. (It is not linear, like in Eukaryotes.)

nucleoid

28

The Domain _______ have histones to help DNA coil up; the Domain Bacteria do not have histones.

Archaea

29

Prokaryotes also have _______ for exchanging. (Most plasmids contain resistance information.)

plasmids

30

Bacterial reproduction is accomplished by the process of _______ ________ to create clones. (It is asexual reproduction.) It is like Mitosis, except there is no G2 phase or Mitosis phases… just G1, S, and cytokinesis.

Binary Fission