Flashcards in Unit 4 Displaying and Interpreting Behavioral Data Deck (83):

1

## A systematic form of data examination, characterized by visual inspection of graphical displays of those data.

### Visual data analysis

2

##
1. Data may be embedded in text.

2. Data may be presented in summary form, usually as a structured data table (a numerical representation of data).

3. Data may be presented in graphical form (a visual representation of data).

### Types of data display

3

## A relatively simple visual format for displaying data.

### Graph

4

##
Equal interval line graph

Cumulative records

Bar graph

Semi logarithmic graphs

### Graphic displays used in ABA

5

## Based on a Cartesian* plane, a two-dimensional area formed by the intersection of two perpendicular lines (one vertical, one horizontal).

### Equal interval line graph

6

## Any point within the plane of the chart represents a specific relationship between the two variables (dimensions) measured along each of the axis lines.

### Simple Line Graph

7

##
Most commonly used format for charting ABA data

Used to evaluate treatment effectiveness

Used in functional analyses

### Common Uses of Line Graphs

8

##
The horizontal X-axis

The vertical Y-axis

Data points

The data path

Condition and phase change lines

Condition and phase change labels

Figure legend

### Parts of an Equal Interval Line Graph

9

##
X-axis.

The abscissa.

Represents the passage of time.

### Horizontal Axis

10

##
Y-axis

The ordinate

Represents the range of values of the dependent variable

### Vertical Axis

11

##
Can be marked according to the needs of the behavior analyst, to promote the most useful analysis

Can be marked as any specified recorded observation periods, over a period of time

### X-Axis Units

12

##
Equal movements up the Y-axis represent equal increases in the behavior

The behavior should be expressed in whole time units

### Y-Axis Units

13

## Runs from zero up to some number which is chosen by the creator of the graph

### Y-Axis Range

14

## An individually measured value of the target behavior (the DV) at a given point in time

### Data Points

15

##
A series of straight lines connecting successive data points within a phase or condition.

It represents the relationship between the IV and the DV.

### Data Path

16

##
Major changes occur in the independent variable

A major (usually permanent) change in the environment

### Phase Changes

17

##
Document phase changes

placed at a point along the X-axis indicating the point in time when the phase change occurred

for a clear visual separation between the data charted before the phase change, and the data collected after the phase change

### Phase Change Lines

18

##
Minor changes occur in the independent variable

A minor (usually temporary) change in the environment

### Condition Change Lines

19

## States what time periods are represented by each successive data point

### X- Axis Labels

20

## States what response measure was used to measure the dependent variable – the target behavior

### Y- Axis Labels

21

## Brief labels, placed at the top of the chart, and identify each separate major phase of treatment

### Phase Labels

22

## Mark changes occurring within a phase

### Condition labels

23

##
A concise statement that provides you with:

Sufficient information to identify the dependent variables and the independent variables, and

Possibly other salient information necessary to visually interpret the data.

### Figure Legend

24

##
Level

Variability

Trend

The number of data points

### Visual Analysis of a Graph

25

## The mean (average) value of a set of data points, usually across an entire condition or phase.

### Level

26

## The overall direction taken by the data path through a set of data points

### Trend

27

## The extent to which measures of behavior under the same environmental conditions diverge from one another.

### Variability

28

## Outlying data points skew the level line in a way that makes it non-representative of the data set as a whole

### Median Level

29

## The direction and degree of trend in a series of graphically displayed data points can be visually represented with a straight line drawn through the data.

### Trend Lines

30

## Bisect the data, with close to an equal number of data points above the line as below the line.

### Best Fit Line

31

## A mathematical way to calculate trend

### Split Middle Line of Progress

32

## Developed by Skinner as the primary means of data collection and analysis in EAB laboratory research

### Cumulative Record

33

##
It is primarily used in EAB.

Each response moves the ink stylus one unit (click) along its track.

When it reaches the end of the track, it resets to zero and begins moving again, one click at a time.

Paper moves under the stylus at a steady rate

### Cumulative Recorder

34

##
The vertical axis represents the value of a dependent variable

The horizontal axis represents a phase, condition, or classification variable

### Bar Graph (Histogram)

35

##
Visual analysis includes taking an overview of a data display to evaluate its general characteristics before looking at specific data results. A general characteristic of a data display would be the…

A) Variability within and across phases

B) Range and continuity of each axis

C) Trend within phases

D) Level across phases

### B) Range and continuity of each axis

36

##
Visual analysis of data seeks to answer two basic questions. Select which of the following constitute one, or both, of these two basic questions:

X = Was there a statistically significant change in behavior?

Y = Was there a meaningful change in behavior?

Z = To what extent can the change be attributable to a specific environmental change?

A) X and Z

B) Y and Z

C) X and Y

D) X only

###
B) Y and Z

37

##
Carole has added a response cost procedure contingent on the occurrence of aggression to David’s plan. She has collected data for three months and wants to present these data to the interdisciplinary team in the form that is most easily and quickly analyzed. Which type of data display should she use?

A) Graphical display of data

B) Data embedded in text

C) Summary data in table form

D) All three are equally easy to analyze

###
A) Graphical display of data

38

##
Which of the following are the four graphic displays most commonly used in ABA?

A) Equal interval line graph, cumulative records, bar graph, standard celeration chart

B) Pie charts, area charts, radar charts, and bar graphs

C) Equal interval line graph, pie chart, bar graph, semi logarithmic graphs

D) Bar graph, cumulative record, radar charts, equal interval line graphs

###
A) Equal interval line graph, cumulative records, bar graph, standard celeration chart

39

##
Find the correct match between a type of graphical display and its primary area of application in behavior analysis.

A) Cumulative Record – ABA

B) Equal interval line chart – EAB

C) Standard celeration chart – EAB

D) Equal interval line chart – ABA

###
D) Equal interval line chart – ABA

40

##
Choose the phrase that best completes this sentence: On an equal interval line graph, the passage of time should be represented on the

A) Horizontal Axis (the Y-Axis)

B) Vertical Axis (The X-Axis)

C) Vertical Axis (the Y-Axis)

D) Horizontal Axis (the X-Axis)

###
D) Horizontal Axis (the X-Axis)

41

##
For the equal interval line graph, the upper right quadrant of the Cartesian coordinate system represents the….

A) negative number territory for the X-axis and positive number territory for the Y-axis.

B) positive number territory for the X-axis, and negative number territory for the Y-axis.

C) negative number territory for both the X-axis and the Y-axis.

D) positive number territory for both the X-axis and the Y-axis.

###
D) positive number territory for both the X-axis and the Y-axis.

42

##
On an equal interval line graph, a point along the X-axis represents X ; a point along the Y-axis represents Y ?

A) X= a particular period of time during which a measurement was taken; Y= a quantification of the target behavior

B) X= a quantification of the period of time during which a measurement was taken; Y = a quantification of the independent variable

C) X= a quantification of the target behavior; Y= a measured value of the dependent variable

D) X= a quantification of the target behavior; Y= a particular period of time during which a measurement was taken

### A) X= a particular period of time during which a measurement was taken; Y= a quantification of the target behavior

43

##
What is the most commonly used format for charting ABA data?

A) Pie chart

B) Standard Celeration Chart

C) Equal interval line graph

D) Bar graph

###
C) Equal interval line graph

44

##
The horizontal axis on an equal-interval line graph is also called the ___.

A) Cartesian

B) Ordinate

C) Abscissa

D) Y-axis

###
C) Abscissa

45

##
In Applied Behavior Analysis, the passage of time is commonly represented in the ___ of an equal-interval line graph.

A) Y-axis

B) Ordinate

C) Horizontal axis

D) Vertical axis

###
C) Horizontal axis

46

##
The different values along the X-axis in various chart types may be used to represent changes in which of the following?

X = the passage of time

Y = different values of the dependent variable

Z = values of different environmental variables

A) X and Y but not Z

B) X only

C) Y only

D) X and Z but not Y

###
D) X and Z but not Y

47

##
The ordinate is another name for which of the following axes?

A) The X-axis

B) The Y- axis

C) The horizontal axis

D) The abscissa

###
B) The Y- axis

48

##
In Applied Behavior Analysis, the vertical axis of an equal-interval line graph is used to represent:

A) Any of these can be represented in the vertical axis

B) Changes in the independent variable(s)

C) Changes in the dependent variable

D) The passage of time

###
C) Changes in the dependent variable

49

##
Distortions in data displays reduce the effectiveness of visual analysis. Which of the following techniques is NOT used to reduce the likelihood of distortions in a graphical display of behavioral data?

A) Calibrating the relative lengths of the X and Y axes in relation to each other

B) Using standard units of time

C) All of these procedures are effective in minimizing data display distortions

D) Using appropriate ranges for the Y-axis

###
C) All of these procedures are effective in minimizing data display distortions

50

##
What is the recommended ratio for calibration of the X- and Y-axes on an equal-interval line graph in Applied Behavior Analysis?

A) 10:5

B) 1:6

C) 4:3

D) There is no recommended ratio for calibrating the axes on an equal-interval line graph

###
C) 4:3

51

##
A data path represents the relationship between the X and the Y .

A) X = Dependent variable (DV); Y = Passage of time

B) Any of these options

C) X = Independent variable (IV); Y = Passage of time

D) X = Independent variable (IV); Y = Dependent variable (DV)

###
D) X = Independent variable (IV); Y = Dependent variable (DV)

This question makes a subtle distinction between the dependent variable’s relationship with the environment as represented by the data path versus the DV’s relationship with a measurement period, represented by a data point. A data POINT represents the relationship between the dependent variable and a specific measurement period of time. However, the data PATH is different: it has trend, level and variability, all aspects of the path which are influenced by a relationship between the DV (behavior) and the IV (the environmental condition in place). Thus the data path does not represent the relationship between the dependent variable (DV) and just the passage of time – but rather the effect of the IV on the DV as reflected by repeated measurements of the DV over time. A data path does not represent any relationship between the independent variable (IV) and the passage of time.

52

##
Condition change lines are:

A) Solid lines representing major changes in the independent variable

B) Dotted lines representing changes in the parameters of an intervention

C) Individually measured values of the target behavior at different points in time

D) A series of straight lines connecting successive values of the target behavior, representing the relationship between the IV and the DV

###
B) Dotted lines representing changes in the parameters of an intervention

“A series of straight lines connecting successive values of the target behavior representing the relationship between the IV and the DV” defines the data path, not condition changes. “Individually measured values of the target behavior at different points in time” defines the data points, not condition changes. “Major changes in the independent variable” defines phase changes, not condition changes.

53

##
What type of label states the response measure that was used to measure the dependent variable (the target behavior)?

A) Y-axis label

B) Figure legend

C) X-axis label

D) Phase labels

###
A) Y-axis label

54

##
A figure legend:

A) States the response measure that was used to measure the dependent variable (the target behavior)

B) Identifies each separate major change in treatment and is placed near the top of the chart

C) States the time periods that are represented by each successive data point

D) A concise statement providing enough information to identify the DVs and IVs, and other salient information necessary for visual analysis

###
D) A concise statement providing enough information to identify the DVs and IVs, and other salient information necessary for visual analysis

55

##
Which of the following characteristics of a data path is not a primary consideration when conducting a visual analysis of a set of data?

A) Level

B) Variability

C) Range

D) Trend

###
C) Range

56

##
A level line is

A) A line representing the average value of an entire set of data across all phases and conditions, that acts as a representative standard

B) A flat horizontal line through a set of data, across a condition or phase, usually at the average value of that set of data.

C) A “best-fit” line through a set of data, across a condition or a phase, that can be horizontal, have an upward slope, or a downward slope

D) A line drawn through an entire set of data that represents the average value of the data collected during baseline only, and acts as a representative standard

### B) A flat horizontal line through a set of data, across a condition or phase, usually at the average value of that set of data.

57

##
The mean value is the _____ value of a set of data, while the median is the _____ of a set of data.

X = Average

Y = Mathematical center between the top value and bottom value in the range of a full set of data

Z = Value of the data point in the middle of a set of data points, ordered by ascending value (or the average value of the two middle points)

A) X, Y

B) X, X

C) X, Z

D) Y, Z

###
C) X, Z

The mean is the simple average of a set of numbers. The median is the middle value in that set of numbers—but if that set is an even number of data points, there is no middle number per se, to the average of the two middle numbers is taken. For example, the data set is: 4,3,1,5,2. The ordered set is thus 1,2,3,4,5, and the median of that set is “3”, the middle number in the ordered set. But if the range is 4,3,1,5,2,6, then the ordered set is 1,2,3,4,5,6 – and there is no middle number here! So you have to average the two middle numbers in the set: 3 and 4, which yields a median of “3.5”. This may seem simple, but is particularly important when your set is 3,4,3,2,4,3,4,30,25,2. Your ordered set is now as follows: 2,2,3,3,3,4,4,4,25,30. The mean is the average value = sum of the data points divided by the number of data points = 80/10 = 8.0. But this number does not represent this data set very well. Your median value is the middle of the set. But there is an even number of data points here: 10. So you must take the middle two data points, the 5th and the 6th in the ordered set, and take their average value. 2,2,3,3,3,4,4,4,25,30. Those data point values are 3, and 4, and the average value is 3.5, so that is your MEDIAN value for this set of data.

58

##
What is the mean value and the median value for the following set of data point values?

5, 5, 4, 9, 8, 6, 5

A) Mean = 6 Median = 5

B) Mean = 5 Median = 5

C) Mean = 7 Median = 6

D) Mean = 6 Median = 7

###
A) Mean = 6 Median = 5

59

##
A flat line on a cumulative recording indicates…

A) A decreasing rate over time

B) An unchanging rate at that level of the dependent variable

C) A zero rate for the dependent variable for as long as the line remains flat

D) A broken machine

###
C) A zero rate for the dependent variable for as long as the line remains flat

60

##
In a bar graph, the horizontal axis typically represents:

A) The value of the dependent variable

B) Classification variables of some type

C) Sessions periods

D) The sequential passage of time

###
B) Classification variables of some type

61

##
A visual analysis of a graphical display of data can address which of the following questions?

X = Are the data reliable indicators of the actual amount of behavior?

Y = Was there a meaningful change in behavior?

Z = To what extent can the change in behavior be attributable to a specific environmental change?

A) Y and Z, but not X

B) X only

C) X and Z, but not Y

D) X and Y, but not Z

###
A) Y and Z, but not X

62

##
When beginning a visual analysis of a graphical display, a behavior analyst FIRST evaluates the general characteristics of the chart. This initial overview includes all of the following except:

A) Check the continuity of both the X-axis and the Y-axis

B) Evaluate the appropriateness of the range of the Y-axis

C) Note the variables under consideration

D) Identify specific trends within phases

###
D) Identify specific trends within phases

63

##
Which type of graphical display is the most commonly used in ABA?

A) Cumulative record

B) Bar graph

C) Equal interval line graph

D) Standard celeration chart

###
C) Equal interval line graph

64

##
From the choices below, choose the answer that best completes this sentence: An equal interval line graph

A) as it is used in ABA, employs all four quadrants of a Cartesian plane

B) is also known as a simple line graph, and is based on a Cartesian plane.

C) is also known as a simple line graph, and uses both the positive and negative number territory of a Y-axis on a Cartesian plane

D) can also be called a semi-logarithmic graph, and uses only the upper right quadrant of the Cartesian plane

###
B) is also known as a simple line graph, and is based on a Cartesian plane.

65

##
Which of the following is not typically used in ABA

A) Semi-logarithmic chart

B) Full-logarithmic chart

C) Bar chart

D) Cumulative record

###
B) Full-logarithmic chart

66

##
Which of the following is not part of an equal-interval line graph in ABA?

A) All of these are parts of an equal-interval line graph

B) Phase or condition change line

C) Log scale Y-Axis

D) X – axis

###
C) Log scale Y-Axis

67

##
The abscissa represents which of the following axes on an equal-interval line graph?

A) The vertical axis

B) The horizontal axis

C) The ordinate

D) The Y-axis

###
B) The horizontal axis

68

##
Which axis on an equal-interval line graph is used to represent different values of the dependent variable?

A) Horizontal axis

B) Abscissa

C) Vertical axis

D) X-axis

###
C) Vertical axis

69

##
In ABA, on an equal-interval line graph, the numbers along the horizontal axis typically represent different:

A) Time periods during which a discrete measurement was taken

B) Amounts of the independent variable(s)

C) Values for the dependent variable

D) Parameters of an intervention change

###
A) Time periods during which a discrete measurement was taken

70

##
The vertical axis on an equal-interval line graph is also called the ___.

A) Cartesian

B) Ordinate

C) Abscissa

D) X-axis

###
B) Ordinate

71

##
Distortions of data can occur when:

A) Non-standard units of time are used

B) All of these practices can result in distortions of data displays

C) The range of the Y-axis is not properly calibrated

D) Breaks in either the X or Y axis are used

###
B) All of these practices can result in distortions of data displays

72

##
Phase change lines are:

A) Straight solid lines connecting successive values of the target behavior

B) Solid lines representing the introduction or discontinuation of an intervention

C) Dotted level lines at specific measured values of the target behavior

D) Dotted lines that represent changes in some specific parameter of an intervention

###
B) Solid lines representing the introduction or discontinuation of an intervention

73

##
A data path is created by a series of straight lines connecting successive data points (with each individual data point representing a measurement of the target behavior at a point in time). For the purposes of visual analysis, the data path, running across all phases of the chart, represents …

A) a series of individually measured values of the target behavior at different points in time

B) the relationship between the dependent variable and any systematic changes in the environment (independent variables)

C) major changes in an independent variable

D) changes in specific parameters of an intervention

###
B) the relationship between the dependent variable and any systematic changes in the environment (independent variables)

74

##
Which chart is most effective at limiting the data distortions due to Y-axis range manipulation?

A) Equal interval line chart

B) Bar graph

C) Standard celeration chart

D) All three of these charts are equal in terms of their problem with Y-axis data distortion.

###
C) Standard celeration chart

75

##
Identify the correct pairing(s) below

W = Condition change – Introduction or discontinuation of an independent variable

X = Phase change – Major or permanent environmental change

Y = Condition change – Change in a parameter of an intervention

Z = Phase change – Minor or temporary change in the environmental conditions

A) X and Y

B) W and Y

C) W and X

D) W and Z

###
A) X and Y

76

##
In ABA, the Y-axis label:

A) Provides sufficient information to identify the dependent and independent variables, and other salient information necessary for visual analysis

B) States the response measure used for data collected on the target behavior

C) States a clear and succinct response definition in behavioral terms

D) States the time periods that are represented by each successive data point

###
B) States the response measure used for data collected on the target behavior

77

##
Find the level for the following set of data on number of mands during a series of 1 hour training sessions over a week. There were no intervention changes during this period.

Monday: 3

Tuesday: 3

Wednesday: no session so no mands that day

Thursday: 8

Friday: 6

A) 4.5

B) 5

C) 3

D) 4

###
B) 5

Add up your data and divide by number of data points. 3+3+6+8 = 20. 20/4=5. Wednesday DOES NOT COUNT as a data point: it is not a zero rate of mands on Wednesday. There was no opportunity for the behavior to occur. So there are only 4 data points, not 5. HAD the Wednesday “no mands” counted as a zero in this set of data, then the mean would have been 20/5 = 4, rather than the correct answer, 20/4 =5 as the mean. The median value would be the middle data point is a set of data – or, as in this case, the average between the two middle data points in an ordered set comprised of an even number of data point values: 3,3,6,8. The average of those two middle points, 3 + 6, is 9/2 = 4.5. But that is a median, not a mean, and there are no outlying data points here, which would have required the use of a median level line rather than a mean level line.

78

##
Which of the following characteristics of a graphical display contributes most to a visual analysis of the data?

A) The range of the full set of data

B) All of these contribute equally to a visual analysis

C) The X-axis range

D) The Trend

###
D) The Trend

79

##
A flat horizontal line through a set of data in a condition or phase, which is set at the mean average value of that set of data is also known as a

A) Reference line

B) Best fit line

C) Trend line

D) Level line

###
D) Level line

80

##
A median line might be used instead of a mean line when:

A) There are only three data points

B) There are outliers in a data set

C) Data are tightly clustered in a phase

D) There are fewer than six data points in a phase

###
B) There are outliers in a data set

81

##
“The extent to which measures of behavior under the same environmental conditions diverge from one another” is a good definition of

A) Range

B) Variance

C) Level

D) Variability

###
D) Variability

82

##
Which of the following measures can potentially be established with a one or two data points?

A) All of the above

B) Level

C) Trend

D) Variability

###
B) Level

83