Unit 5- Hitler becomes a dictator, 1933- 1934 Flashcards Preview

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How did Hitler try to win more power after he became chancellor?

Despite being chancellor, Hitler still had to make laws through the Reichstag, which the Nazis didn't have control over due to not having a majority. Here are some ways Hitler tried to change that:
1. Arranging more elections hoping that the Nazis will get a majority in one of them.
2. An even bigger propaganda campaign.
3. Continued violence against all opositions.


What was the significance of the Reichstag fire of February 1933?

On 27th February 1933, the Reichstag building burnt down. Found at the scene was Marinus van der Lubbe, a Dutch communist. The Nazis seized this opportunity. Hitler convinced Hindenburg that this was the beginning of a communist revolution, thus Hindenburg passed the Law for the protection of people and state. This law suspended some parts of the constitution like freedom of privacy, freedom of speech and freedom of communication.
The SA used this new law to break up communist meetings, shut down communist newspapers and arrest key communist oppositions.


What was the significance of the election in March 1933?

Hitler persuaded the National party to join with the Nazi party. This gave the Nazis a majority in the Reichstag and thus allowed Hitler to pass any law he wanted.


What was the Enabling law?

Despite having a majority in the Reichstag, Hitler was not satisfied. He wanted to make laws without the Reichstag at all. He wanted to pass an Enabling law that would make him a dictator for the next 4 years. He did this by either persuading or threatening at least 2/3 of the Reichstag into voting for the new law, and thus Hitler became dictator.


What did the term 'bringing into line' mean?

The term literally meant the process of Hitler putting everything in Germany under Nazi control and making sure no one could question his authority ever again.


How did Hitler bring Germany into line?

1. The states- In April 1933, Hitler appointed a Nazi as the head of every state. Later in January 1934, he abolished state parliaments completely.
2. Trade unions- The Nazis broke into trade union offices and arrested thousands of officials. Hitler then merged all unions into the German Labour Front, controlled by the Nazis.
3. Other parties- The Nazis destroyed other party's newspapers and confiscated finds, as well as closed down offices and arrested officials. By July 1933, the Nazis were the only party left in Germany.
4. Ordinary people- The Nazis banned anti- Nazi literature and rhetoric as well as a range of other things. People's houses were searched and if found guilty, were arrested and sent to concentration camps.
5. Civil servants- All people working for the government, i.e. Police, firemen, doctors, prosecutors... had to swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler.


What was the Night of the long knives?

On the night of 30th June 1934, Hitler ordered the SS to arrest and/ or murder all leading SA leaders, including the leader of the SA Ernest Rohm. In doing this, Hitler eliminate his only threat to power, earned the support of the army as well as put fear into all other Nazi rivals.


Why were the SA such a big threat to Hitler's power?

By 1934, the SA had grown significantly. It consisted of mainly ex- soldiers and street gangs who only wanted to fight. They had been important in Hitler seizing power so they wanted a bigger part of it. Ernest Rohm, the leader of the SA, wanted to merge the SA with the army with him as the leader. Hitler knew whoever controlled the army had the most power. Giving Rohm the army means making him the most powerful man in Germany, with power to easily overthrow him. Hitler could not risk that chance and decided to dispose of Rohm and all other major SA leaders.


How did Hitler become the absolute dictator of Germany?

In August 1934, President Hindenburg died. Hitler declared himself President and chancellor of Germany. He made the army swear an oath of loyalty to him. By this time, no one in Germany had the power to overthrow Hitler.


What was the cult of the Fuhrer?

Hitler wanted the Nazis to influence everyone in Germany. He wanted to be seen not just as head of state, but as supreme leader of Germany. He did this by introducing a set of almost religious rules:
1. By law, everyone had to greet each other with the Hitler salute.
2. Everyone had to swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler.
3. People celebrated Hitler on special events like his birthday.
4. a portrait of Hitler had to be hung in every official building.