Unit 2- A doomed republic? The crisis of 1919- 1923 Flashcards Preview

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What did the Treaty of Versailles comprise of?

1. Land- The treaty took away 70,000 km^2 of land away from the Germans and gave it to other countries. All foreign German colonies were taken away.
2. Army- The German army was to be reduced to 100,000 troops and only 6 battleships. They were not allowed to have an airforce, submarines or tanks.
3. Money- Germany was forced to pay for all the damages done in the war, called reparations. This totaled to about 132 billion marks (£6.6 billion).
4. Blame- The Germans had to accept full blame for starting the war.


Why was the T of V so unpopular with the German public?

1. They thought they were winning the war and so they called the Weimar republic 'the November criminals' for surrendering.
2. They thought the treaty was forced onto the German people.
3. They thought the treaty was unfair.


What political unrest was there?

1. The Sparticist rising- In January 1919, the Sparticists attacked Berlin, occupying several newspaper offices and telegraph posts. However, the Free Corps quickly suppressed the uprising, recaptured the buildings, and murdered the leaders Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht.
2. The Kapp Pusch- 5000 Free Corps soldiers marched into Berlin and forced the government to flee. The extreme nationalist doctor Kapp declared himself head of state. However, they never won the support of the public. Workers went on strike and the city halted. Kapp was forced to flee and thus the revolt failed.
3. Red rising in the Rhur- Workers in the Rhur industrial region formed the 'Red army' and seized control of many towns and factories. However, the army was sent into the region and quickly defeated the communists.


What led to the invasion of the Rhur?

The German economy was crippled by the war but they still had to pay reparations of 162 billion marks. They did so in 1921 and 1922 but announced they were unable to make further payments for the next three years. The French did not believe this so in January 1923, they invaded the Rhur to take their reparations in resources.


How did the German government respond to the invasion of the Rhur?

The German army was too weak to fight the occupying French so the German government ordered the troops to go on a campaign of passive resistance. They refused to work so production in factories stopped. This meant that the French were unable to take anything. Trains and ships also halted, as well as telephone and communication posts.


What were the consequences of the Rhur invasion?

To keep the workers in the Rhur on passive resistance, the government had to keep paying them. However, since no goods were being produced, the government was not making any money. To get around this problem, the German government printed lots of money; which created hyperinflation. Money became absolutely worthless and a loaf of bread may need a truck's worth of money to buy. Workers' pay rose in accordance, but people with savings and set pensions suffered.