Flashcards in Unit 4- The rise and fall of the Weimar republic, 1924- 1933 Deck (8)
How did Gustav Stresemann rebuild Germany's economy?
1. Called off passive resistance in the Rhur and promised the French to continue reparation, the French thus withdrew from the Rhur.
2. Replaced the useless currency with a new currency, the Rentenmark. This halted hyperinflation.
3. The Dawes plan of 1924 gave Germany longer to pay reparations and the Young's plan of 1929 significantly lowered reparations.
4. Germany signed the Locarno Treaties of 1925 with France and Belgium, promising never to invade them.
5. Germany joined the League of Nations in 1926.
6. Improved foreign relations and reduced inflation meant that the US lent huge sums of money into Germany, which was used to build new houses, new roads, new railways and better infrastructure .
What was the Great Depression and what were the consequences?
The Great Depression began in America with the Wall street crash. Businesses were closing and people were losing their jobs. American banks demanded their money back from Germany. This led to businesses in Germany closing and people losing their jobs. By 1932, unemployment levels in Germany rose to 6 million. People who didn't lose their jobs had to put up with low wages, long hours and poor working conditions.
How did the Great Depression affect people's lives?
Unemployed people lived off benefits from the government. this money was barely enough to buy enough food for most people, let alone basic amenities such as clothing. People who mortgaged houses during the golden twenties lost their houses and ended up living in camps on the edge of towns and cities.
Why were the Nazis unpopular during the golden years?
1. They were banned. This gave them a bad reputation.
2. People were happy with what Stresemann was doing and continued to vote for the Social Democrats.
3. People who wanted change tended to vote for the communists.
4. Some people did not like the violent ways of the SA and the Nazis.
5. Some people thought Nazi ideas were too extreme.
How did the Weimar republic handle the Great Depression?
Not well. Proportional representation meant that no one party could make quick decisions since no parties had the majority. Different parties disagreed with each other and no decision could be made on the best way to solve the Great depression. Parties had to form coalitions to get the majority but even then, politicians were disagreeing with each other. The Weimar republic could not function.
Why did the Nazis get so many votes in 1930?
1. Propaganda- The Nazis spent huge sums of money on printing posters, leaflets and newspaper advertisements.
2. Fear of communism- Business owners and farmers who wanted change voted for the Nazis rather than the communists in the fear that they might lose their businesses to a communist state.
3. The Great Depression and unemployment- People lost faith in the Social Democrats and decided to vote for extremists.
4. Hitler's leadership- Hitler was a great speaker and was celebrity figure in Germany.
5. Nazi organisation- the Nazis were well organised. Members in each town collected donations and the SA crushed any opponents to the party, making it ook strong. The Nazis organised many rallies and concerts to raise money and to increase Nazi popularity.
How did Hitler become chancellor in January 1933?
1. From 1930- 1932, since article 48 was issued, President Hindenburg and chancellor Bruning were making laws by decrees, this meant that they did not need the permission of the Reichstag to make laws.
2. Bruning made bad decisions that not only failed to end the Depression, but also made him very unpopular.
3. Senior army officer General Schleicher convinced Hindenburg to sack Bruning and replace him with Franz von Papen.
3. The Reichstag dis not support Papen. Hoping to win more votes, he held an election in July 1932. Beside being disappointed by the results, the Nazis became the biggest party in the Reichstag, with over 200 seats. This would technically have made Hitler chancellor, but Hindenburg didn't allow this since he did not trust Hitler.
4. In November 1932, Papen convinced Hindenburg to use the army to crush any oppositions, but Schleicher warned that such an act would prompt civil war, so Papen was forced to resign.
5. Schleicher became chancellor, but he was also unpopular with the Reichstag. He wanted to use the same tactics as Papen. Hindenburg became suspicious and refused, forcing Schleicher to resign.
6. Papen makes a deal with Hitler which stated that if Hitler became chancellor, he would be the vice chancellor. Papen then convinced Hindenburg to make Hitler chancellor since he was convinced they could control him.
7. In January 1933, Hitler becomes the chancellor of Germany.