Flashcards in Unit 7- The totalitarian state: Life in Nazi Germany Deck (5)
How did the Nazis affect the lives of women?
1. Traditional values, the Nazis thought the only duty of the woman was the bear children. They encouraged the KKK (Kinder, kirch, keuch), or children, church, kitchen values.
2. Discouraged women from working, sacked many female civil servants.
3. Encouraged early marriages and children bearing. Gave out marriage loans.
4. Encouraged bearing children. The more children they carried, the less money they had to pay back. Gave medals to the most fertile mothers.
5. Set up the German Women's Enterprise to teach women how to carry out household chores.
6. Encouraged women to dress conservatively.
7. Discouraged women with mental or physical disabilities to have children, programs were set up to sterilise such women.
How did the Nazis affect the lives of young people?
1. Schools were ran by Nazis, teachers had to join a Nazi teachers' league, Jewish teachers were sacked, textbooks were rewritten to include Nazi ideas, PE lessons were doubled.
2. All youth groups were merged into the Hitler Youth Movement and membership was made compulsory in 1939.
3. Activities in Hitler Youth groups were physically intensive and included pro- Nazi teachings such as respecting the Fuhrer, hating the Jews, and gaining lost territories.
4. Most German children enjoyed being part of the Hitler Youth and thus accepted Nazi ideas.
How did the Nazis affect religion?
1. Obviously, Judaism was banned and hated at the highest level. During the war, millions of Jews and their families were killed in concentration camps and extermination camps.
2. Hitler signed an agreement in 1933 that stated the Nazis would not interfere with the Catholic church. However, he broke his promise and closed down many catholic churches and monasteries, as well as putting many priests in jail.
3. Protestants were forced to join the Reich church with a Nazi at the head. However, many protestants hated this and broke away, joining the confessional church. Hitler saw this as a challenge to his authority so he put many, including the head of the confessional church Martin Neimoller into jail.
4. Other religious sects like the Jehovah's Witnesses were put into concentration camps for not co- operating with the Nazis.
5. Non- christian sects replaced the banned christian ones. The German Faith Movement was the biggest. They were all pro- Nazis and they worshipped the sun and seasons.
How did the Nazis use propaganda to keep control?
1. The press- All newspapers were under Nazi control and they put across Nazi ideas. The press was told daily what they can write and wheat they can't.
2. Radio- All radio station were under Nazi control. The Nazis mass produced a radio call the People's Receivers. The radio was used to broadcast Hitler's speeches as well as pro- Nazi radio programmes. Radios were also in work places and public places so people can listen to them when not at home. People were told to stop what they were doing at certain times of the day to listen to important radio broadcasts.
3. Rallies and campaigns- Rallies were used to gain Nazi support. They were massive spectacles where there were performances as well as speeches given by Nazi officials. Campaigns were used to raise money for the Nazi party. For example, the 'One- pot Sunday'.
4. Misinformation- The press was told to make up false information and spread it for the Nazis' own benefits. School textbooks were written to include false information to support Nazi ideas.
5. Restrictions on freedom of expression- Books were censored so that communist, Jewish and all other types of anti- Nazi books were burned at massive bonfires. Entertainment and culture was also censored so that no anti- Nazi ideas were spread. A law was also passed banning all anti- Nazi gossip.