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0

What things can influence the development of the infant

Stimulation, nutrition, genetics, social environment, pathology

1

The two types of movement newborn babies have are

Spontaneous movement and reflexive movement

2

What is spontaneous movement

Jerky slow because of the incomplete myelination babies are jittery; without this spontaneous movement there will definitely be a bad outcome

3

What is reflexive movement
0-2
Spinal

Smoother efferent sensory neurons go into the dorsal root ganglia into the spine and efferent neurons send a message to the muscles the reflex so it's less jittery and more fluid

4

What is the flexor withdrawal reflex -supine
0-2
Spinal

With the baby supine a noxious stimulus to the side of 1 foot
responds with the withdrawal of the stimulated lower extremity from the stimulus
Test both LES; between birth to two months at spinal level

5

What is the gallant reflex (paravertebrals) prone
0-2
Spinal

The babies and to prune the paravertebral's 2 inches on either side the trunk will turn concave towards the stimulus
after two months this is integrated
it is at the spinal root level
Helps with crawling and walking
If reflex persists with older children it can affect posture, ineffective posture, coordination, Big wedding, attention, and the ability to sit still

6

What is the placing reflex - vertical
0-2 months
Spinal Level

The baby is still vertically you stimulate the dorsum of the foot and you actually go to the edge of the table as you live the baby up the top of the fruit will hit the table and it will stimulate the infant to flex his leg and actually step up onto the surface; this can also be done to the hand if you brush the hand to open up to his fingers if they had their fists clenched you touch the posterior surface of the hand and they will open their hands

7

What is the stepping reflex/walking reflex - vertical
0-2
Spinal

0-2 months
Spinal level
Support the child in the vertical position with their feet resting on the floor them slightly leaning forward move them and they should respond at all to me in rhythmic stepping you want to test both sides

8

Is the positive supporting reflex - vertical
0-2
Spinal

0-2 min; spinal level
Hello from contact with the child be with the floors just put them vertically; bilateral lower extremity is extend the contraction of the flexors and extensors and weight bearing

9

What is the plantar reflex or the Babinski sign- supine
0-9
Spinal Level

Patient is the lateral aspect of the side of the foot from heel to toe toes look stand on the stimulated foot but in an adult toes will curl which indicates something is wrong; can stroke lateral aspect f hands as well
0-9 months
Spinal level

10

What is the plantar grasp reflex - supine & voluntary
0-9 (4-6 months Palmer)
Spinal

Position is supplying test but putting firm pressure against the plantar surface of the Charles foot below the toes just eat foot in the plantarflexion of all toes will be the result can also test the Palmer grasp reflex.; which will facilitate the child grabbing a rattle but if this is persistent they will have problems later
this occurs from birth to nine months & at the spinal root level

11

What is the Moro reflex/ startle 30' head drop supine - end of session
0-6
Medulla

This is also known as the startle reflex
Patient Mrs. Pauline quickly will to pitch a Backwood to allow a 30° Hedra the child should start a pic with the extending abducting shoulders extending and abducting fingers and then crying into three seconds to shooters with flex 80 death and to bring the upper
extremity back up to the chest
If this persists in the older child can be associated with hypersensitivity, anxiety, emotional and social immaturity, allergies for adaptability and distractibility
0-5 months; medulla

12

What is the suck swallow reflex supine
0-5
Medulla

Position in supine
Finger in the child's mouth and they'll respond via rhythmics sucking and a spontaneous swallow

13

What is ATNR asymmetrical tonic neck reflex supine (visual traction-cheerleading pose)
0-6
Medulla
*if they can't roll over - May delay

Position is the time to enhance later one side and hold gently the arm on the skull side will flex and same side leg will fles
athe face side will extend ; fencing
A child who has this will not be able to role-play with both hands
- if a person has hard time getting into a certain position
If ATNR remains at a later age it can affect: Visual tracking will be more difficult, right-handed child may find it difficult to write on the left side of the page, hand I coordination

14

What is the symmetrical tonic neck reflex STNR? Supine over knees
4-12 months
Medulla
*cant crawl if this reflex is delayed - will scoot or bunny hop because they can get up onto their legs like they should in the reflex is prominent
UPPER -Lower rather than right left extremity difference

Supine neck flexes (over knees prone or quadruped)/ prone neck extends
Testing the passive or active Neck extension & flexion
the responses = the neck extension produces UE extension and LE flexion and when the neck flexion causes the UE to flex and LE extend
If this remains will have problems integrating upper and lower portions of the body; sitting posture will slump; have poor hand I coronation)

15

What is the tonic labyrinthine reflex TLR? Supine/ prone
0-6
Medulla
*if reflex not present might get stuck in fetal position

Supine- exhibiting extensor tone- elongated
prone = exhibiting flexor tone - fetal
Tummy time they curl up
Passively attempt to lift the child head from the surface they may have poor muscle tone if this is present
When baby looks up the tonic labyrinthine reflex causes the baby to straighten their legs and arms and extend them
When baby goes down his limbs should fold in and flex - tummy time
If this is present and not integrated child will not be able to have good balance, have motion sickness, difficulty with sequencing, mix up letters (b,d; p,q)

16

Rooting reflex supine
Pons
0-3

Stroke upper lip / lower lip toward cheek
Head turn
Mouth opens, neck extends/ mouth opens, neck flexes

17

Tracking reflex - sit to supine
Pons
0-3

Pull at wrists and pull child to sitting
Response - flex shldrs, elbows, wrists, fingers

18

Landau reflex
Medulla
5 months

Prone- body righting against gravity
Appear to be 'flying'
Children with too much abduction at hips
* if reflex does not occur it can indicate a motor development issues: See in children with Low tone Down syndrome or CP

19

Crossed extrension
/same test as flexor response
0-2/3 months
Spinal cord

-gets us ready for stepping on something that hurts
Rt foot extends as left foot flexes from stepping on sharp object
Stim on left - leg flexes - opposite extends

20

Primitive reflexes

Provide a Stimulus leads to reaction/ response
Flexor withdrawal
Galant
Placing
Stepping
Plantar / babinski
Palmar grasp
Moro
Rooting
Traction

21

Not primitive reflexes

Stimulate movement - get a position and holding pattern:
Crossed extension (flexor withdrawal)
Positive support reflex
Suck swallow reflex

22

Positive support reflex

Vertical / not leaning forward like stepping
Tries to stand- not sinking down
We hold them but they give resistance to stand

23

Suck swallow reflex

Stim on lip gets them to open mouth
Stim on tongue- swallow and such initates
Eventually do on own

24

Reflexes integrated

We should be able to take volition all control over the movement.

25

Start to develop REACTIONS after reflexes
Righting
Support
Protective
Equilibrium

Head righting
Trunk righting
These are postural responses that continue into adulthood
These are used to maintain balance

26

Righting reactions

Babies want to see works straight

27

Head righting

Prone - lift head up
Supine - head up
Want to see world straight
Side to side - tilt baby/ orient head level

28

Support reactions

Prone
Sitting
Quads
As child develops body part that comes into contact to maintain position

29

Protective reactions
COG OUTSIDE BOS
Lose center of balance
Fall over catch ourselves with arms

Extend extremity to maintain balance - RAPID
1. Downward (4 m)
2. Forward (UE 6 m)
3. Sideways (UE 7 m)
4. Backward (UE 9 m)
5. Stepping (LE- 15 m)