Flashcards in Urinary Bladder/Male Internal Reproductive Organs Deck (85):
The urinary bladder is slightly lower in what gender?
When the bladder is empty, it lies in what part of the body?
Entirely within the pelvis resting against the pubis and adjacent pelvic floor
When the bladder is filling, it moves to which area of the body?
Rises into the abdomen and may reach the level of the umbilicus
At birth, what is the shape and location of the bladder?
Spindle-shaped and mostly in the abdomen
What are the surfaces of the bladder?
Superior, left inferolateral, right inferolateral, fundus (base)
What surfaces of the bladder meet to form the apex?
Superior and the two inferolateral surfaces in front
What surfaces meet to form the neck of the bladder?
Inferolateral surfaces and fundus
What is the path of the ureters?
Subperitoneally along the lateral wall of the pelvis and enter the bladder at its fundus
Peritoneum overlies which surface of the bladder?
Why does the position of the uterus cause frequent micturition during pregnancy?
Due to the body of the uterus overlying the bladder in females
What is the retropubic space?
U-shaped space between the pubis and bladder that contains a retropubic fat pad
Why do some long distance runners notice blood in their urine after a long run?
Retropubic fat pad sometimes is insufficient and repetitive trauma occurs from the bladder hitting the pubic symphysis during the run
What are the two ligaments that function to hold the bladder in place?
Puboprostatic (pubovesical) ligament and lateral ligament of the bladder
What does the puboprostatic ligament do?
Attaches the prostate gland (or neck of the bladder in the female) to the pubis
What does the lateral ligament of the bladder do?
Passes from the base of the bladder to the rectovesical fold (males) or rectouterine fold (females)
What is the smooth triangular structure located on the posterior and inferior wall of the bladder?
What is the importance of the flap-valve of the ureter?
Prevents reflux of urine heading back to the kidneys
What happens to the ureter when the bladder is full and also during micturition?
Ureter is compressed (flap-valve)
What opening of the trigone is located below and in front?
Internal urethral orifice
What openings of the trigone are located above and behind?
How do the ureters travel within the bladder?
Obliquely in an inferomedial direction
What is the feature that extends between each of the ureteric orifices?
What is the median ridge which extends above and behind the internal urethral orifice?
Uvula of bladder
What is the bundle of smooth muscle which lies within the wall of the bladder?
What is the circular layer of smooth muscle which surrounds the neck of the bladder in males?
Internal urethral sphincter
What is the purpose of the internal urethral sphincter in males?
Prevents reflux of semen into the bladder during ejaculation
The internal urethral sphincter is not present in which gender?
What arteries make up the blood supply of the urinary bladder?
Superior and inferior vesical arteries, vaginal artery
What makes up the venous blood supply of the urinary bladder?
Prostatic (male) or vesical (female) plexus of veins
Where do the prostatic (male) or vesical (female) plexus of veins empty into?
Internal iliac vein
What is the innervation of the urinary bladder?
Prostatic and vesical plexuses
The prostatic and vesical plexuses that innervate the urinary bladder are extensions of what?
Inferior hypogastric plexus
Where are the sympathetic fibers from that innervate the urinary bladder?
Lower 3 thoracic and upper 2 lumbar levels
Where are the parasympathetic fibers from that innervate the urinary bladder?
Pelvic splanchnic nerves (S2-S4)
What initiates the micturition reflex?
When do we learn to suppress the micturition reflex?
During toilet training
Activation of what fibers causes contraction of the detrusor muscle in both sexes and relaxation of the internal urethral sphincter in males?
Parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic splanchnic nerves (S2-S4)
During micturition, what is relaxed under voluntary control?
External urethral sphincter
What are the 6 male internal reproductive organs?
Testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct, prostate gland
What is a thick-walled tube which carries sperm from the testis to the ejaculatory duct?
Where does the ductus deferens begin?
At the tail of epididymis
The ductus deferens travels within what structure as it enters the pelvis?
The ductus deferens enters the pelvis through what structure?
Deep inguinal ring
The ductus deferens crosses over what structure during its path?
The ductus deferens lies where in reference to the bladder?
The ductus deferens lies where in references to the seminal vesical?
Medial to it
The ductus deferens joins what to form the ejaculatory duct?
Duct of the seminal vesicle
What is the dilated terminal portion of the ductus deferens?
Ampulla of ductus deferens
What is the innervation of the ductus deferens?
Superior and inferior hypogastric plexus
What are the two lobulated glandular structures which lie lateral to the ampullae of the ductus deferens against the fundus of the bladder?
The seminal vesicle's lower ends become narrow and form ducts that join what structure to form the ejaculatory ducts?
Do the seminal vesicles store sperm?
What fluid is produced by the seminal vesicle?
Alkaline component of semen
What is the purpose of the alkaline fluid prouduced by the seminal vesicle?
Neutralizes vaginal acidity so sperm can survive
Where is sperm stored?
The two ejaculatory ducts open onto what structure in the prostatic urethra?
What is the blood supply to the ductus deferens, seminal vesicle, and ejaculatory duct?
Artery of the ductus deferens, inferior vesical artery, and middle rectal artery
What is the most important artery for male internal reproductive organs?
Inferior vesical artery
What type of fluid is produced by the prostate gland?
Neutral pH fluid
What does it mean when we say that the prostate is a "mixed" gland?
It is made from smooth muscle, glandular tissue, and fibrous tissue
What is the function of the prostate gland?
Production of semen
Where does the prostate gland lie?
Below the bladder and surrounds the urethra
The prostate gland lies where in references to the pubic symphysis?
The prostate gland lies where in reference to the rectal ampulla?
The prostate gland can be palpated through what structure?
What part of the prostate gland lies anterior to the urethra and contains no glandular tissue?
Isthmus of Prostate
What is the portion of the urethra which is surrounded by the prostate gland?
What is the median crest located on the posterior wall of the prostatic urethra
What is the ovoid elevation located on the urethral crest?
What is the tiny blind pouch located on the seminal colliculus?
The prostatic utricle is homologous to what structure of the female?
What is the groove located lateral to the urethral crest that receives the ducts of the prostate gland?
What is the blood supply to the prostate gland?
Inferior vesical artery, middle rectal artery, and internal pudendal artery
What is the innervation of the prostate gland?
Prostatic Plexus from the inferior hypogastric plexus
What is benign prostatic hypertrophy?
Prostate enlargement due to influence of hormones
What is the typical age of benign prostatic hypertrophy?
After the age of 40
What is an herbal treatment for benign prostatic hypertrophy?
Benign prostatic hypertrophy can lead to what issues?
Difficulty in micturition through compression of the urethra
What is one of the most common cancers among men?
What is the location of prostate cancer metastasis?
Blood and lymph channels
How is metastasis of prostate cancer to the vertebral column and plexus allowed?
Through connections between prostatic and sacral venous plexuses
What types of issues in another bodily location commonly accompany prostate cancer?
What type of test is used for early detection of prostate cancer?
PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen)
Chronic inflammation of the prostate or prostate cancer may caused referred pain in what location?