Urinary Tract Infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Urinary Tract Infections Deck (36):
1

Bacteruria definition

Bacteria in urine. Present in all Urinary Tract Infections

2

Pyuria

White blood cells in urine

3

Significant bacteruria

10^5 bacteria in urine

4

Dysuria

Burning on urination

5

Lower Urinary Tract Infection

self explanatory

6

Urethritis

Inflammation of the urethra

7

pyelonephritis

renal pelvis/ kidney infection

8

Acute Urethral syndrome

frequent urination

9

Classic cystitis ( bacteria count over 10^5) accounts for what percentage of cases of dysuria

50%

10

UTIs are the most common bacterial infection

true

11

most common causative organism?

E.Coli

12

UTI's are more prevalent in which sex during infancy?

Males

13

UTI's are more prevalent in which sex from ages 3-50?

Females greatly outnumber males

14

Lower UTI symptoms

- frequency of urination
- dysuria
- turbid urine
- suprapubic discomfort
- hematuria

15

Upper UTI

- flank pain or CVA tenderness
- fever, chills

16

Birth control usage corresponds strongly to the presence of Urinary tract infections in sexually active individuals

truth

17

Spermicidal foam changes the microflora of the vagina

truth

18

Diaphragms change the angle of the urethra

truth

19

Antibiotics for pyelonephritis

Aminoglycosides like topamycin concentrate in high amounts in the infected kidney

20

Pathogenesis of UTI

95% are from an ascending route.
- Urethral Trauma
- Intercourse
- Instrumentation
- Diaphragm use

21

5% of UTI's are from hematogenous spread

ok

22

Uropathogenic E. Coli

Cause most UTI's. Express a number of virulence factors

Type 1 Fimbriae- mannose-sensitive fimbrae, blocked by manos sugar

P- Fimbriae- "pyelo-fimbrae" cause pyelonephritis if the bacteria expresses them

23

Type 1 Fimbrae

attach to mannose in the lower urinary tract

24

P- fimbrae

Attch to p- blood group in upper urinary tract. Will cause pyelonephritis

25

First step in diagnosis of UTI?

microscopic urinalysis

26

Pathogenesis of UTI

Adhesion, Colonization, Invasion, Phase Variation
ACIP

27

What is the rate limiting step for bacterial growth?
What do bacteria such as E. Coli do to overcome this?

Iron availability
They release exotoxins such as alpha hemolysin which lyse red blood cells to remove iron

28

What is the name of the capsule that prevents uropathogenic E coli from being killed due to WBC invasion

K- antigen

29

Important to remember that the poly's coming in as an immune response have receptors for mannose which helps them find and bind the bacteria. How do the bacteria respond to this?

PHASE VARIATION. They quit making type 1 fimbriae and start making P- fimbriae.

30

Host defense mechanism

- Bacterial growth inhibition
- urine flow
- epithelial cell turnover
- antibodies

31

Things that can predispose to UTI

- urine flow obstruction
- abnormal flow
- trauma
- reflux
- intrumentation
- general health

32

When the ureter dialates it is called?

Hydroureter. occurs when flow out is blocked

33

How long are males treated for a lower urinary tract infection?

1 week

34

How long are females treated for lower UTIs

1-3 days

35

Upper tract infection

1-6 weeks of treatment...IV then oral

36

Asymptomatic bacteriuria?

NOT TREATED... Especially in the elderly...KNOW