Flashcards in Male Pathophysiology 1 Deck (30):
What are the most common congenital abnormalities of the penis?
Epispadias and hypospadias
What are epispadias and hypospadias
Abnormal openings of the urethra on the dorsal or ventral penis from malformation of the urethral canal.
Which is more common, Epispadias or hypospadias?
This notecard set is not going to be very thorough until the weekend of the 28th
Inflammation of the penis
Two urethral orifices
What is hypospadias
urethral opening on the bottom (ventral side of penis)
inability to easily retract the foreskin
Inflammation of the penis is generally due to phimosis or venereal disease
inability to retract the foreskin
What is a condyloma
warty, cauliflower like growths which occur primarily in the anogenital region, though you can get them wherever you have sex.
What HPV causes condyloma?
HPV 6 and 11
Squamous carcinoma in situ on the skin of the penis is called?
Squamous carcinoma on the glans of the penis
erythroplasia of queryat.
80% of penile dysplasias are related to what?
HPV...usually type 16. If left untreated, will progress to squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis is related to HPV 50% of the time (types 16 and 18). Other risk factors include smoking and poor hygiene
Too many x chromosomes....usually xxy
Increased stature, small to normal sized well developed testis
- incomplete virilization
- mental retardation
Histology of Klinefelter seminiferous tubules
What is distinct about the Leydig cell layout in Klinefelter?
Psuedoadenomatous clusters of Leydig cells. Just appear this way because of decreased testicular volume. There is really no increase in number
Klinefelters patients are at risk for increased incidence of extragonadal germ cell tumors and hypopituitarism
Focal atrophy of the testicular tubules
What is testicular torsion
twisting of the spermatic cord leading to ischemia and venous stasis,
May be related to trauma but often the inciting event is obscure.
Surgery within 4-6 hours may save the testis; after that, infarction will obliterate it.
Hypospadias is caused by?
Failure of the urethral folds to close
Epispadias caused by
Abnormal positioning of the genital tubercle