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Flashcards in Reproductive Buzzwords/ must knows Deck (65):
1

Fried Egg Appearance

Seminoma (germ cell tumor of the testis)

2

Pale yellow nodules in the prostate

cancer

3

Histology of seminiferous tubules in Klinefelter Syndrome

Small, hyalinized seminiferous tubules

4

Focal atrophy of testicular tubules

Mumps

5

Blue Dome appearance on gross exam, lumpy breasts

Fibrocystic change

6

Most common change in premenopausal breast

Fibrocystic change

7

Sports and breasts

Fat necrosis (due to trauma)

8

How do you differentiate a intraductal papilloma from a papillary carcinoma

Intraductal papillomas have the standard two layers of cells (luminal and myoepithelial) also generally present in pre-menopausal women.
Papillary Carcinoma is characterized by fibrovascular projections lined by epithelial cells with no underlying myoepithelial cells. more common in post-menopausal women

9

Most common tumor in premenopausal females

fibroadenoma

10

BP medication absolutely contraindicated in pregnancy?

ACEi- 50% rate of congenital malformation if organogenesis exposure

11

When is organogenesis done?

12 weeks

12

Oxidase positive gram negative diplococcus

Neiserria gonorrhoeae

13

Condyloma cause

HPV 6 or 11, always

14

Low risk HPV

6, 11

15

Erection center is located where

sacral region

16

Erection is mainly a parasympathetic reflex

ok

17

Ejaculation is coordinated where

Lumbar Spinal cord

18

clitoris actually retracts under the clitoral hood during plateau phase

Women who were masturbating were not seen to directly stimulate the clitoris but instead moved the labia and mons over the clitoral hood.

19

IPV linked to

obesity, tobacco use, substance abuse, sexual behavior, mental health issue, injury and violence

92% used alcohol or drugs and 2/3 of those used both

20

DO NOT BLAME THE VICTIM

EVER

21

Malakoplakia

Soft yellow plaque composed of large foamy macrophages, the occasional giant cell.
Macrophages contain PAS+ granules
Michaelis- Gutman bodies between macrophages

What is it? A defective host response to a bacterial infection...usually gram negative

22

Michaelis Gutman Bodies

Malakoplakia....look for target like objects

23

Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is related to infestation by what?

Schistosoma hematobium

24

Primary determinant of prognosis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is

STAGE

25

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease caused by

Gonococcus, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Enteric bacteria, Strep, Staph

26

Look at summary slides...

KNOW CYTOTROPHOBLAST FUNCTION

27

ONE DISK PLACENTA

HUMAN

28

Placenta Accreta

Placenta attached to the myometrium

29

Placenta Increta

Placenta invades the myometrium

30

Placenta Perceta

Placenta invades to or through the uterine serosa

31

Placenta previa

implantation of placenta in the lower uterine segment

32

Abruption placentae

separation of the normally mplanted placenta before birth

33

Risk factors for abruption placentae

trauma, sudden uterine decompression, maternal hypertension, maternal cocaine use,maternal smoking

Presentation: vaginal bleeding, tender, hypercontractile

34

PTEN

Endometrial hyperplasia/carcinoma...Inactivation of PTEN leads to increased gland sensitivity to estrogen

35

What percentage of simple endometrial hyperplasia progresses to cancer

1%

36

What percentage of complex endometrial hyperplasia progresses to cancer

3%

37

What percentage of atypical complex hyperplasia progresses to cancer?

25%

38

HYPERPLASIA= NO SECRETION

ok

39

Structure of HPV

circular double stranded DNA in an icosahedral capsid

40

When I say permissive and non-permissive cells what do you think of?

HPV...Permissive cells allow nuclear replication and viral assembly. Release via cell lysis

Non-permissive cells are neoplastic. DNA is stored extrachromosomally in benign cells and is incorporated into host DNA in malignant cells

41

Infantile laryngeal papilloma is caused by HPV....

6,11

42

DX of syphillis

serology and microscopic examination of scrapings

43

Describe the serology of syphillis?

RPR and VDRL: these are cheap and the antibodies drop after the cure

Flourescent Treponomal Antigen-Absorbed: Positive test is definitive with this one but the test is cumbersome, expensive, and the titers remain high for years so it doesnt tell you much about antibiotic effectiveness.

44

Symptoms of Primary syphillis

Non-painful chancre, non pianful lymphadenopathy

45

Secondary syphillis

THis is a disseminated infection so the pt will appear sick....have a fever, swollen nodes, mucous membrane snail track lesions.
- skin rash on hands and feet
- mild meningitis
- perianal warts

46

obligate intracellular

chlamydia

47

Gram negative diplococcus with kidney bean shape

Gonorrhea

48

Mycoplasma, causes urethritis and cervicitis

Ureaplasma

49

two life cycles

Chlamydia, EB infects, RB is the obligate intracellular part. RB grows in mucosal epithelium cytoplasmic inclusion body

50

Antigenic variation = pilus variation

Gonorrhaea

51

If someone is gonorrhaea positive, there is a 50% chance they are also infected with....

Chlamydia

52

LGV>

Chlamydia infection....swollen nodes with ulcer at entry site

53

Trachoma

Chlamydia that causes blindness

54

Penile discharge

GC- Purulent (GP...gary parrish has gonorrhaea and purulent penis discharge)
CT- Milky

55

Endometrial carcinoma arises from endometrial hyperplasia. Remember that endometrial hyperplasia is generally a result of too much estrogen over time. Risk factors include nulliparity, anovulatory cycles (estrogen keeps being secreted), and exogenous estrogen, obesity.

ok

56

In a complete hydatidiform mole, only paternal chromosomes are present

ok...so it's one sperm or two sperm penetrating an empty ovum

57

In a partial mole, two sperm penetrate a regular egg

ok

58

Leiomyoma on histo

spindle shaped cells in whirled bundles

59

Treatment for trichomonas

Metronidazole: It is amoebacidal, bactericidal, and trichomonacidal. The unionized form is taken up by anaerobes where it is reduced to its active form which disrupts DNA helical structure, thereby inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis.
Discolors stool and urine. Inh Cyp2c9

60

Most common type of invasive breast cancer

Invasive ductal carcinoma...more than 80% of BC.

61

staph mastitis typically produces a localized abcesss.

Strep mastitis on the other hand usually spreads throughout the breast

62

Most common breast cancer to be bilateral

Lobular carcinoma

63

Must know this for Dr. Phillips...

Women who still have a uterus need to take progestogen (progesterone) along with estrogen to prevent cancer of the uterus/

Women who have had a hysterectomy can take estrogen alone

64

Leaf-like projections

Phyllodes tumor

65

Malakoplakia

defective host handling of an infection. Michaellis gutman bodes. PAS+ granules
Soft yellow plaques with closely packed large foamy macrophages