Flashcards in Reproductive Buzzwords/ must knows Deck (65)
Fried Egg Appearance
Seminoma (germ cell tumor of the testis)
Pale yellow nodules in the prostate
Histology of seminiferous tubules in Klinefelter Syndrome
Small, hyalinized seminiferous tubules
Focal atrophy of testicular tubules
Blue Dome appearance on gross exam, lumpy breasts
Most common change in premenopausal breast
Sports and breasts
Fat necrosis (due to trauma)
How do you differentiate a intraductal papilloma from a papillary carcinoma
Intraductal papillomas have the standard two layers of cells (luminal and myoepithelial) also generally present in pre-menopausal women.
Papillary Carcinoma is characterized by fibrovascular projections lined by epithelial cells with no underlying myoepithelial cells. more common in post-menopausal women
Most common tumor in premenopausal females
BP medication absolutely contraindicated in pregnancy?
ACEi- 50% rate of congenital malformation if organogenesis exposure
When is organogenesis done?
Oxidase positive gram negative diplococcus
HPV 6 or 11, always
Low risk HPV
Erection center is located where
Erection is mainly a parasympathetic reflex
Ejaculation is coordinated where
Lumbar Spinal cord
clitoris actually retracts under the clitoral hood during plateau phase
Women who were masturbating were not seen to directly stimulate the clitoris but instead moved the labia and mons over the clitoral hood.
IPV linked to
obesity, tobacco use, substance abuse, sexual behavior, mental health issue, injury and violence
92% used alcohol or drugs and 2/3 of those used both
DO NOT BLAME THE VICTIM
Soft yellow plaque composed of large foamy macrophages, the occasional giant cell.
Macrophages contain PAS+ granules
Michaelis- Gutman bodies between macrophages
What is it? A defective host response to a bacterial infection...usually gram negative
Michaelis Gutman Bodies
Malakoplakia....look for target like objects
Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is related to infestation by what?
Primary determinant of prognosis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease caused by
Gonococcus, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Enteric bacteria, Strep, Staph
Look at summary slides...
KNOW CYTOTROPHOBLAST FUNCTION
ONE DISK PLACENTA
Placenta attached to the myometrium
Placenta invades the myometrium
Placenta invades to or through the uterine serosa
implantation of placenta in the lower uterine segment
separation of the normally mplanted placenta before birth
Risk factors for abruption placentae
trauma, sudden uterine decompression, maternal hypertension, maternal cocaine use,maternal smoking
Presentation: vaginal bleeding, tender, hypercontractile
Endometrial hyperplasia/carcinoma...Inactivation of PTEN leads to increased gland sensitivity to estrogen
What percentage of simple endometrial hyperplasia progresses to cancer
What percentage of complex endometrial hyperplasia progresses to cancer
What percentage of atypical complex hyperplasia progresses to cancer?
HYPERPLASIA= NO SECRETION
Structure of HPV
circular double stranded DNA in an icosahedral capsid
When I say permissive and non-permissive cells what do you think of?
HPV...Permissive cells allow nuclear replication and viral assembly. Release via cell lysis
Non-permissive cells are neoplastic. DNA is stored extrachromosomally in benign cells and is incorporated into host DNA in malignant cells
Infantile laryngeal papilloma is caused by HPV....
DX of syphillis
serology and microscopic examination of scrapings
Describe the serology of syphillis?
RPR and VDRL: these are cheap and the antibodies drop after the cure
Flourescent Treponomal Antigen-Absorbed: Positive test is definitive with this one but the test is cumbersome, expensive, and the titers remain high for years so it doesnt tell you much about antibiotic effectiveness.
Symptoms of Primary syphillis
Non-painful chancre, non pianful lymphadenopathy
THis is a disseminated infection so the pt will appear sick....have a fever, swollen nodes, mucous membrane snail track lesions.
- skin rash on hands and feet
- mild meningitis
- perianal warts
Gram negative diplococcus with kidney bean shape
Mycoplasma, causes urethritis and cervicitis
two life cycles
Chlamydia, EB infects, RB is the obligate intracellular part. RB grows in mucosal epithelium cytoplasmic inclusion body
Antigenic variation = pilus variation
If someone is gonorrhaea positive, there is a 50% chance they are also infected with....
Chlamydia infection....swollen nodes with ulcer at entry site
Chlamydia that causes blindness
GC- Purulent (GP...gary parrish has gonorrhaea and purulent penis discharge)
Endometrial carcinoma arises from endometrial hyperplasia. Remember that endometrial hyperplasia is generally a result of too much estrogen over time. Risk factors include nulliparity, anovulatory cycles (estrogen keeps being secreted), and exogenous estrogen, obesity.
In a complete hydatidiform mole, only paternal chromosomes are present
ok...so it's one sperm or two sperm penetrating an empty ovum
In a partial mole, two sperm penetrate a regular egg
Leiomyoma on histo
spindle shaped cells in whirled bundles
Treatment for trichomonas
Metronidazole: It is amoebacidal, bactericidal, and trichomonacidal. The unionized form is taken up by anaerobes where it is reduced to its active form which disrupts DNA helical structure, thereby inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis.
Discolors stool and urine. Inh Cyp2c9
Most common type of invasive breast cancer
Invasive ductal carcinoma...more than 80% of BC.
staph mastitis typically produces a localized abcesss.
Strep mastitis on the other hand usually spreads throughout the breast
Most common breast cancer to be bilateral
Must know this for Dr. Phillips...
Women who still have a uterus need to take progestogen (progesterone) along with estrogen to prevent cancer of the uterus/
Women who have had a hysterectomy can take estrogen alone