Urological Malignancies (Kidney, Bladder, Prostate) Flashcards Preview

Surg Spec (Urology) > Urological Malignancies (Kidney, Bladder, Prostate) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urological Malignancies (Kidney, Bladder, Prostate) Deck (69)
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1

What type of malignant tumour occurs in the renal pelvis?

Transitional cell carcinoma

2

What type of malignant tumour occurs in the renal parenchyma?

Renal cell carcinoma

3

What is the name for the embryonic tumour which forms in the kidneys?

Nephroblastoma (Wilm's tumour)

4

What is the most common intra-abdominal tumour in children?

Nephroblastoma (Wilm's tumour)

5

How does a nephroblastoma (Wilm's tumour) typically present?

Abdominal mass +/- haematuria

6

What is the most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma?

Clear cell carcinoma

7

Describe the typical demographic that renal cell carcinomas affect?

More common in males, typically aged around 55

8

The presence of multifocal or bilateral renal cell carcinomas should raise suspicion of what genetic condition?

Von-Hippel-Lindau syndrome

9

Local spread of a renal cell carcinoma is most commonly to where?

Renal vein +/- IVC

10

'Cannonball' pulmonary metastases is associated with which urological primary tumour?

Renal cell carcinoma

11

Where do renal cell carcinomas typically metastasise to?

Bone, liver and lung

12

What is the typical triad describing the presentation of renal cell carcinoma?

Haematuria (painless), loin pain and a renal mass

13

Renal cell carcinomas can present with a variety of paraneoplastic syndromes- give some examples of these?

Polycythaemia, hypertension, hypercalcaemia

14

The appearance of a left sided varicocele in a middle aged man should raise suspicion of what?

Left sided renal cell carcinoma (invading the left renal vein)

15

What blood test is used to screen for the presence of bony metastases?

ALP

16

What is the gold standard imaging investigation to confirm a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma?

CT urogram

17

What is the most common treatment option for renal cell carcinoma?

Radical nephrectomy

18

When may a partial nephrectomy be utilised as treatment for renal cell carcinoma?

Only if the tumour is T1 on staging

19

What can be used in the management of unresectable or metastatic renal cell carcinomas?

Biological therapies e.g. sutinib

20

All patients with renal cell carcinoma should be followed up for how long to assess for late recurrence?

10 years

21

What type of drug is sutinib, used in the management of renal cell carcinomas?

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor

22

A nephroblastoma (Wilm's tumour) may metastasise early- this is most commonly to where?

Lungs

23

How is a nephroblastoma (Wilm's tumour) treated?

Nephrectomy, chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy

24

90% of bladder tumours are what histological type?

Transitional cell carcinomas

25

Transitional cell carcinomas can be found where in the urinary tract?

Renal pelvis, ureters and bladder

26

What are the two main risk factors for development of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder?

Schistosomiasis infection or bladder calculi

27

Smoking, occupational exposure to analine dyes, pelvic irradiation and chronic bladder infections all increase the risk of developing which type of cancer of the bladder?

Transitional cell carcinoma

28

What is the typical demographic of individual affected by transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder?

More common in males, typically aged > 50

29

75% of transitional cell carcinomas occur in which area of the urinary tract, and can lead to obstruction?

The trigone of the bladder

30

Where are transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder most likely to metastasise to haematogenously?

Liver and lungs