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Flashcards in Penile Disorders Deck (37)
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1

What histological type of cancer is penile cancer?

Squamous cell carcinoma

2

What is the typical demographic of individual to be affected by penile cancer?

Older, uncircumcised men (particularly in developing countries)

3

The differentiated type of penile cancer is usually a result of what?

Chronic inflammation

4

The undifferentiated type of penile cancer is usually a result of what?

HPV type 16/18 infection

5

How does squamous cell carcinoma in situ present on the penis?

Red, velvety plaques

6

What is squamous cell carcinoma in situ known as if it is located on the glans, foreskin or shaft of the penis?

Erythroplasia of Queyrat

7

What is squamous cell carcinoma in situ known as if it is located on any part of the male genitalia apart from the glans, foreskin or shaft of the penis?

Bowen's disease

8

Other than squamous cell carcinoma in situ, what is another pre-cancerous lesion of the penis?

BXO (lichen sclerosus)

9

How can pre-cancerous lesions of the penis usually be treated?

Circumcision

10

Penile cancer tends to spread to which lymph nodes?

Inguinal

11

How do penile cancers tend to present?

Ulcerating lesions on the glans or foreskin, which may be associated with pain and a foul smelling discharge

12

How are early cases of penile cancer treated?

Radiotherapy and irridium wires

13

How are late cases of penile cancer treated?

Amputation and lymph node dissection

14

What are the two most common causative organisms of urethritis?

Neisseriae gonorrhoeae and chlamydia trachomatis

15

How does urethritis typically present in men?

Purulent urethral discharge

16

What is balanitis?

Inflammation of the foreskin and glans penis

17

What cause of balanitis typically occurs after intercourse, and is associated with itching and a white non-urethral discharge? How should this be treated?

Candida - topical clotrimazole

18

What cause of balanitis is usually painful and can be itchy with a yellow non-urethral discharge? How should this be treated?

Bacterial - oral flucloxacillin

19

What cause of balanitis is associated with the presence of Wickham's striae and violaceous papules? How should this be treated?

Lichen planus - high potency topical steroids e.g. clobetasol

20

How should balanitis caused by dermatitis be treated?

Low potency topical steroids e.g. hydrocortisone

21

What cause of balanitis is associated with the formation of white plaques and may cause significant scarring? How should this be treated?

Lichen sclerosus (BXO) - circumcision

22

What is meant by the term phimosis?

The foreskin cannot be retracted

23

In adults, phimosis is associated with what condition?

BXO

24

What is meant by the term paraphimosis?

The foreskin cannot be pulled forwards over the tip of the penis

25

What is the risk of paraphimosis- why is it a urological emergency?

It prevents venous return and risk ischaemia of the glans penis

26

What are some management options to try to relieve paraphimosis?

Manual compression of the glans penis, 50% glucose soaked swab, ice packs, lidocaine gel

27

What surgical options are available to treat paraphimosis if conservative management fails?

Aspiration, dorsal slit, circumcision

28

What is meant by the term priapism?

A persistent erection lasting > 4 hours

29

Priapism can be high flow or low flow- which type is typically associated with penile trauma?

High flow

30

Priapism can be high flow or low flow- which type is more common?

Low flow