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Flashcards in Clinical Essentials Deck (37)
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1

Give 4 examples of storage (filling) LUTS?

Frequency, urgency, nocturia, dysuria

2

Give 4 examples of obstructive (voiding) LUTS?

Poor stream, terminal dribbling, incomplete emptying, hesitancy

3

Are storage (filling) urological symptoms more common in males or females?

Females

4

Are obstructive (voiding) urological symptoms more common in males or females?

Males

5

What is the normal post-void residual volume in individuals aged < 65 years?

< 50mls

6

What is the normal post-void residual volume in individuals aged > 65 years?

< 100mls

7

A triad of dysuria, urgency and frequency is most suggestive of which diagnosis?

UTI

8

How does acute urinary retention usually present?

Severe lower abdominal pain and an inability to pass urine

9

If a person has haematuria caused by bleeding in the lower urinary tract, when does it typically occur in the stream?

The end of the stream

10

What are the two main causes of painful haematuria?

UTIs and renal stones

11

Painless haematuria is often the presenting feature of what?

Tumours of the urinary tract (particularly bladder and kidney)

12

Haematuria involving clots suggests that the bleeding is coming from where?

The upper urinary tract

13

Haematuria due to exercise e.g. contact sports or long-distance running will usually resolve within how long?

7 days

14

Bouts of severe, unilateral loin to groin pain associated with haematuria is known as what (if no other underlying cause is found on investigation)?

Loin pain haematuria syndrome

15

Pain from the kidneys is usually felt where?

Loin

16

Pain from the bladder is usually felt where?

Suprapubic area

17

Pain from the prostate may be felt where?

Perineum

18

What are the two main urological causes for acute loin pain?

Obstructed-infected kidney or renal calculi

19

The presence of nitrites in the urine indicates the presence of what?

Gram negative bacteria

20

What type of urine sample is used for microscopy and culture?

Mid-stream sample

21

What is the initial modality of choice for imaging the kidneys and bladder?

Ultrasound

22

What is the initial modality of choice for imaging the prostate gland?

Trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS)

23

What is a baseline imaging test which is done in everyone presenting with suspected renal calculi, but often shows nothing?

KUB radiograph (plain radiograph)

24

What is the difference between a CT-KUB and CT-urogram?

CT-urogram utilises contrast, while a CT-KUB does not

25

What is the imaging investigation of choice instead of CT-urogram in patients who have contrast allergies, renal impairment or are pregnant?

MR-urography

26

What investigation is used to measure the volume of urine passed with time, and is used to calculate the flow rate?

Uroflowmetry

27

What is the gold standard investigation for someone presenting with renal colic?

CT-KUB

28

If aged > 50 years, what are the gold standard investigations for someone presenting with macroscopic haematuria?

CT-urogram and cystoscopy

29

If aged < 50 years, what is the gold standard investigation for someone presenting with macroscopic haematuria?

Renal ultrasound

30

What is the gold standard investigation for someone presenting with a renal mass?

CT-urogram