Flashcards in Clinical Essentials Deck (37)
Give 4 examples of storage (filling) LUTS?
Frequency, urgency, nocturia, dysuria
Give 4 examples of obstructive (voiding) LUTS?
Poor stream, terminal dribbling, incomplete emptying, hesitancy
Are storage (filling) urological symptoms more common in males or females?
Are obstructive (voiding) urological symptoms more common in males or females?
What is the normal post-void residual volume in individuals aged < 65 years?
What is the normal post-void residual volume in individuals aged > 65 years?
A triad of dysuria, urgency and frequency is most suggestive of which diagnosis?
How does acute urinary retention usually present?
Severe lower abdominal pain and an inability to pass urine
If a person has haematuria caused by bleeding in the lower urinary tract, when does it typically occur in the stream?
The end of the stream
What are the two main causes of painful haematuria?
UTIs and renal stones
Painless haematuria is often the presenting feature of what?
Tumours of the urinary tract (particularly bladder and kidney)
Haematuria involving clots suggests that the bleeding is coming from where?
The upper urinary tract
Haematuria due to exercise e.g. contact sports or long-distance running will usually resolve within how long?
Bouts of severe, unilateral loin to groin pain associated with haematuria is known as what (if no other underlying cause is found on investigation)?
Loin pain haematuria syndrome
Pain from the kidneys is usually felt where?
Pain from the bladder is usually felt where?
Pain from the prostate may be felt where?
What are the two main urological causes for acute loin pain?
Obstructed-infected kidney or renal calculi
The presence of nitrites in the urine indicates the presence of what?
Gram negative bacteria
What type of urine sample is used for microscopy and culture?
What is the initial modality of choice for imaging the kidneys and bladder?
What is the initial modality of choice for imaging the prostate gland?
Trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS)
What is a baseline imaging test which is done in everyone presenting with suspected renal calculi, but often shows nothing?
KUB radiograph (plain radiograph)
What is the difference between a CT-KUB and CT-urogram?
CT-urogram utilises contrast, while a CT-KUB does not
What is the imaging investigation of choice instead of CT-urogram in patients who have contrast allergies, renal impairment or are pregnant?
What investigation is used to measure the volume of urine passed with time, and is used to calculate the flow rate?
What is the gold standard investigation for someone presenting with renal colic?
If aged > 50 years, what are the gold standard investigations for someone presenting with macroscopic haematuria?
CT-urogram and cystoscopy
If aged < 50 years, what is the gold standard investigation for someone presenting with macroscopic haematuria?