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Flashcards in Uworld added 4 Deck (306):
1

LES tone, Esophageal motility in CREST

Lower LES tone, Decr motiity

2

Effect of incr ACTH on adrenals

Hyperplasia of Zona Fasciculata

3

When is separation anxiety normal

12-18 months of age

4

Pyocianin

Kills competing bugs and pulmonary cells

5

Why ED in liver disease

Hyperestrogenism --> Hypogonadism --> Low testosterone

6

Specific therapy shown to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance (IRDS)

Nitric Oxide

7

What is normal in ARDS

Left Atrial Pressure (PCWP)

8

Pathophys of ARDS

Endothelial cell damage (cytokines, PMN's)

9

Analgesic nephropathy

Marked thickening of vasa recta capillaries and intermittent tubular necrosis

10

Responsible for signs and symptoms of gout

PMN's engulf urate crystals after IgG binding

11

Cell transformation

Loses ability to regulate growth

12

Phentoamine MOA

Alpha antagonist (reversible)

13

Anticholinergic symptoms

Hot as a hare, Dry as a bone, Red as a beet, Blind as a bat, Mad as a hatter

14

Feature of Burkitt Lymphoma cells

Prominent lipid vacuoles

15

Peripheral smear of CML

Leukocytosis with many immature myeloid cells

16

Clefted lymphocytes

Centrocytes = Follicular lymphoma

17

Rosacea

Easy flushing --> Persistent erythema, telangiectasia, sensitivity to sunlight

18

Most common organism in endometritis

Bacteroides (postpartum), Chlamydia less commonly

19

Nummular exema

Most commonly from xerosis --> Pruritic, coin-shaped, erhythematous patches

20

Psoriasis seems to be triggered by

Smoking, Weather change, Stress

21

Vasomotor rhinitis

Chornic nasal congestions that worsens with abrupt change sin temp or exposure to odors or alcohol

22

Deep fascia of penis surrounding corpora cavernosa and spongiosum

Buck's

23

Binasal hemianopsia

Bilateral pressure on optic chiasm - Atherosclerosis of internal carotids

24

Innervation of Levator Scapulae

Dorsal Scapular

25

Innervation of Pec Minor

Medial Pectoral N

26

How is saliva modified on excretion

Na, Cl reabsorbed; K, HCO3 secreted

27

Adjustment disorder vs Acute Stress Disorder

In AD, no flashbacks or nightmares and typically emotional stress caused rather than life-threatening event (rarely last >6 mo)

28

Schizophrenia is >2 of …

Delusions, Hallucinations, Disorganized speech/behavior, Negative sx

29

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Maladaptive behavior characterized by magical thinking, odd beliefs; Usually no auditory hallucinations

30

Acanthomoeba

Fatal encephalitis in AIDS/immunocompromised - mass similar to Toxo

31

Urine darkens upon standing in sunlight

AIP (during attack)

32

Features of pleural exudate

(1) Pleural fluid protein/serum protein >0.5; (2) Pleural fluid LDH/serum LDH >0.6; or (3) Pleural fluid LDH > 2/3 upper limit normal serum LDH

33

Low glucose in pleural fluid

Malignancy or infection

34

Osmotic Fragility Test

Spherocytes more fragile (SA/volume), Sickle Cell/Thalassemia less fragile

35

Burr cells (echinocytes)

Uremia or Pyruvate Kinase deficiency

36

Complications of Hereditary Spherocytosis

Pigment Gallstones, Aplastic Crises from Parvo B19

37

HSphero after splenectomy

Infections, Thrombosis

38

Sodium and Glucose osmotic relationship

Serum sodium drops 1.6 mEq/L for every 100mg/dL rise in blood glucose

39

Timepoint for early male vs femal differentiation of external genitalia

10 weeks

40

Postmortem clots vs thrombi

Bright purple to red, gelatinous; Not attached to vessel wall, lack lines of Zahn

41

Gastrin receptor on Parietal Cells

CCK2

42

Palmitoylation

FA's are covalently anchored to plasma membrane cysteine residues --> Incr hydrophobicity; Many GPCR's exhibit this anchoring

43

Changes in HR, LVESV after Nitroglycerin

HR incr, LVESV decreased (decr stroke work = lower ratio of MVO2:Coronary BF)

44

Allelic vs Genetic heterogeneity

Allelic = different mutations in same gene; Genetic = Mutations in different genes

45

Phenotypic heterogeneity

Mutations in same gene result in different phenotypes

46

DMD vs BMD is blank hetergeneity

Allelic

47

Clemastine

Selective H1 blocker for allergic rhinitis or urticaria but not asthma (H4)

48

Serotonin causes vaso…

Constriction

49

Indirect ELISA

Detect specific antibodies in pt serum

50

Most bacterial efflux pumps work by

Moving protons along concentration gradient out of cell coupled with expelling antibiotic

51

Chromosome 4

ADPKD (PKD2), Huntingtons

52

Chromosome 5

Cri-du-chat, FAP

53

Chromosome 7

Williams, Cystic Fibrosis

54

Chromosome 9

Freidreich Ataxia

55

Chromosome 13

Patau, Wilson disease

56

Chromosome 16

ADPKD (PKD1)

57

Chromosome 17

NF1 (NR17)

58

Proteins destined for ER possess

N-terminal peptide sequence (15-20 hydrophobic AA's) --> Recognized by SRP --> Fed into RER

59

Hydrops Fetalis

Hb Barts (4 nonfunctional globin loci), Parvovirus B19, Rh disease, etc

60

Abnormally low Testosterone in Seminiferous Tubules, Epididymis

Sertoli cell dysfunction (ABP) --> Necessary to maintain high testosterone locally

61

What gland is responsible for hyperhidrosis (palms, soles, axillae)

SNS (cholinergic though) --> T2 sympathetic ganglia for axillary hyperhidrosis

62

Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion -->

Tarsal muscle, Lacrimal gland, Radial muscle of iris, All salivary glands

63

Red safranin O

cartilage, mast cell granules, mucin

64

PAF actions

IP3 --> Ca --> Bronchoconstriction, Vasoconstriction, Platelet aggregation

65

Low levels PAF

NO --> GC --> cGMP --> Vasodilator that promotes leukocyte adhesion; diapedesis, degranulation, oxidative burst

66

How does Prostacyclin inhibit platelet function

Incr cAMP by stimulating AC

67

Epidermoid cysts

Keratin-filled, cystic papules - not actually from sebaceous glands

68

Slope of Lineweaver Burk

Km/Vmax

69

Rigidity of Chlamydia wall

Lack peptidoglycan -- Cysteine-rich outer membrane with S-S bridges

70

First generation Sulfonylureas

Chlorpropamide, Tolbutamide

71

GLP-1 analogs

Exenatide, Liraglutide

72

Amylin analogs

Pramlintide

73

SGLT-2 inhibitor

Canaglifozin

74

Compact vs spongy

Outer shell vs Inner cancellous trabeculae

75

Woven vs Lamellar bone

Woven is immature (often pathologic in adult)

76

Bony callus is composed of

Flexible hyaline cartilage

77

Lynch syndrome cancers

Colorectal, Endometrial

78

FAP cancers

Colorectal, Brain, Desmoids/osteomas

79

vHL cancers

Hemangioblastoma, Clear cell RCC, Pheo

80

MEN1 vs MEN2 gene

MEN1 is tumor suppressor (menin); MEN2 is proto-oncogene (RET)

81

Papoviruses

Polyoma and Papilloma

82

All DNA viruses replicate in blank expect blank

Nucleus, exc Pox

83

All DNA viruses are linear except

Papilloma, Polyoma, Hepadna

84

*-ssRNA virus that carries own RNA polymerase

Paramyxovirus

85

Pontiac Fever

self-limited flu-like illness from Legionella

86

Colloid goiter

Diffuse, nontoxic goiter

87

Achalasia is due to

Aperistalsis in distal esophagus and hypertensive LES unable to relax

88

Conduction aphasia

Only repitition impaired

89

Unmyelinated neurons (Group C)

(1) Autonomic postganglionic; (2) Heat afferents; (3) Afferents of dull, burning, visceral pain

90

Delusional disorder

>1 delusion for >1 mo; Ability to function apart from delusion

91

Standard Error

SD / sqrt(n)

92

Lassa Fever is transmitted by

Rodent urine

93

Loading of MHC 1 vs 2

1 is shuttled to RER and loaded with antigen presented by TAP; 2 is shuttled to endosome with Invariant chain

94

CD1

Present lipid-containing foreign antigens to CD1-specific T cells

95

Extrinsic toxins causing ATN

Aminoglycosides, Amph B, Contrast dye, Heavy metals

96

Callus

Painless thickening of stratum corneum

97

Cut section of PCOS ovary

Subcapsular folicles in diff stages of atresia rimmed by hyperplastic theca stromal cells

98

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency

Isolated T lymphocyte deficiency

99

APRT deficiency

Purine salvage def (Adenine to AMP) => Hyperuricemia, Adenine stone urolithiasis

100

Block aminoacyl-tRNA access to 30S

Tetracyclines

101

Blocks peptidyltransferase action on 50S

Chloramphenicol

102

Pyromycin MOA

analog to amionacyl-tRNA

103

Direct Cholinomimetics

Bethenachol, Carbachol, Methacholine, Pilocarpine

104

GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors are used in

Acute Coronary Syndrome

105

Origin of germ cells

Posterior Yolk Sac --> Gonadal ridge during 5th/6th wk of development (may stray)

106

Heart defects in DiGeorge

Conotruncal - Truncus, Tetrology, Interrupted aortic arch

107

Lipoxin A4, B4

Decr leukocyte recruitment

108

PGD2/E2

Vasodilation, Inc vascular permeability

109

FSGS is often associated with

HIV, Heroin, Sickle cell

110

Collapsing Glomerulopathy

HIV --> FSFS variant

111

HoxA-13

Hand-Foot-Genital Syndrome

112

MUDPILES

Methanol, Uremia, DKA, Propylene Glycol, INH/Iron, Lactic Acidosis, Ethylene Glycol, Salicylates

113

At constant contractility, max velocity of skeletal muscle contraction increases as

Afterload (force against which it must contract) decreases

114

Acute leukemia presents as

Pancytopenia

115

Glucagon vs Octreotide on splanchnic flow

Glucagon vasodilates, Octreotide vasconstricts and diverts to caval

116

tRNA D arm vs TWC loop

D arm facilitates correct AA pairing; T arm necessary to bind to ribosomes

117

Which is slanted: TOF for depolarizing or non-depolarizing?

Slanted for non-depolarizing (Tubucurarine, Phase 2 succinylcholine)

118

Ribavirin MOA

(1) Hypermutates; (2) Inhibit IMP DH - depletes GTP; (3) Inhibit HCV RNA polymerase; (4) Inhibit 5' cap; (5) Enhance Th1 immunity

119

When is RBC Cl content highest

Venous blood (CO2 --> HCO3 --> Exchanged for Cl)

120

Scala tympani/vestibuli vs scala media

Tympani/vestibuli have high Na content (perilymph); Media high K content (endolymph)

121

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

Parkinsonism (midbrain, frontal subcortical white matter) --> Rapid gait dysfunction, Falls, Executive fxn loss, Vertical gaze palsy --> Tau proteins

122

Absent matrix protein in measles

Mediates mature viron particle formation --> Absent can lead to SSPE

123

From what is alanine formed in muscle

Pyruvate + NH2-

124

Glutamine in kidneys

Glutaminase --> Glutamate and NH3/NH4+

125

Murmurs that incr with Decr Preload and Afterload

Valsalva/Abrupt standing --> MVP and HCM decr (LV volume decr)

126

Murmurs that incr with Handgrip

AR, MR, VSD (incr LV and aortic pressure)

127

Murmurs that decr with Handgrip

HCM (incr LV volume), AS (decr transvalvular gradient)

128

Germ layer of Bladder, Urethra

Endoderm

129

Germ layer of middle ear

Endoderm

130

Germ layer of lungs

Endoderm

131

Germ layer of Internal Genitalia

Mesoderm

132

Germ layer of Kidney, Ureters

Mesoderm (vs bladder, urethra are endoderm)

133

Germ layer of Adrenal Cortex vs Medulla

Cortex is mesoderm, Medulla is NC

134

Primitive streak

Thickening of epiblast that appears cadually and grows cranially

135

Epiblast cells that undergo EMT

Migrate down to become mesoderm and endoderm

136

B vs Power

B is probability of committing type 2 error; Power is 1-B, the probability of rejecting null hypothesis when it is truly false

137

Myelodysplastic Syndromes are characterized by

Ineffective hematopoeisis and cell maturation defects (BM shows dysplastic differentiation among all non-lymphoid lineages)

138

How far do cilia extend in respiratory tree? Goblet cells?

Goblet cells end in segmental bronchus, cilia extend thru terminal bronchioles to respiratory bronchioles (in order to sweep mucus back up)

139

Bronchioles (vs Bronchi) generally lack

Goblet cells, Glands, and Cartilage

140

CD16

Low-affinity Fc receptor on NK cells, PMNs, Macrophages

141

Tumor suppressor or proto-oncogene: APC, WT1, vHL?

All tumor suppressors

142

EGFR inhibitors are used for

Non-small cell lung cancer

143

D-glutamic acid capsule

B anthracis

144

Require NADPH as cofactor

FA, Cholesterol, Steroid synthesis; Drug metabolism

145

Selection bias

Non-random selection, or Selective attrition of participatns

146

Haldane effect

Incr O2 binding --> Incr CO2 and H+ unloading

147

Cofactor for ALA synthase

B6

148

CD18 deficiency

Leukocyte adhesion --> Skin infections WITHOUT pus, Delayed separation

149

C3 vs C4 in PSGN

C3 low, C4 normal

150

Hemoglobin Bart

Gamma 4 - Homozygous alpha thal

151

Location of N-acetylglutamate Synthase

Liver mitochondria (urea cycle)

152

Asparagine is formed from

Glutamine transfers to Aspartate

153

Etoposide vs Irinotecan vs Topotecan

Etoposide is Topo 2; Others are 1

154

Topo 1 vs 2

1 makes ss nicks; 2 makes ds nikcs

155

Etoposide MOA

Podophyllin --> Seal ds nicks

156

Positive and Negative LR

LR+ = Sensitivity/(1-specificity); LR- = (1-sensitivity)/Specificity

157

Incidence and mortality of top 3 cancers in women

Incidence is Breast, Lung, Colon; Mortality is Lung, Breast Colon

158

AE of Ticlopidine

Neutropenia

159

Reverse T3 is generated from

Peripheral conversion of T4

160

Where is GTP formed in CAC

Succinyl-CoA --> Succinate

161

First does of ACEi

Hypotension --> Predisposed with hyponatremia, hypovolemia (diuretics), high renin/aldosterone, renal impairment, heart failure

162

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma cells are

Large, Overlapping nuclei, Finely dispersed chromatin, Intranuclear inclusions and grooves

163

Length Constant

(Space constant) - Measure of how far along axon an electical impulse can propogate

164

Time Constant

Time it takes for change in membrane potential to achieve 63% of new value (lower = incr speed)

165

Bluish neoplasm under nail bed

1. Glomangioma; 2. Melanoma

166

Glomus bodies

Neurovascular organs in dermis - Thermoregulation

167

E6 and E7

HPV - E6 inhibits p53, E7 binds Rb

168

Right Nasal Hemiopia

Aneurysm or Atherosclerotic calcification of Internal Carotid impinging upon optic chiasm

169

Lipoid acid is involved in

(1) Decarboxylation of a-Keta Acids; (2) Transfer of alkyl groups

170

Citrullinemia

Deficiency of Arginosuccinate Synthetase

171

Effect of Hyperammonemia on neurons

(1) Deplete Glutamate and a-KG; (2) Incr Glutamine = Hyperosmolarity, Mito dysfxn

172

Oxindole

Elevated in hepatic encephalopathy

173

Enterovirus vs Picornavirus

All picorna are entero except Rhinovirus

174

Naked ssDNA virus

Parvovirus

175

Lesions very characteristic of Histoplasmosis

Ulcerated lesions of tongue

176

Phlegmasia Alba Dolens

(milk leg) = Iliofemoral venous thrombosis in peripartum women

177

Dystrophic calcifications occurs where

Necrosis

178

Heart assocations with Down's

Ostium Primum ASD, Regurgitant AV valves

179

Heart associations with DiGeorge

Tetrology, Aortic Arch anomalies

180

Heart associations with Friedreich's Ataxia

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

181

Heart associations with Marfan's

Cystic medial necrosis of aorta

182

Most serious long term effect of chloroquine

Retinopathy

183

Mesenteric Adenitis

Yersinia enterocolitica - Pseudoappendicitis (5-14)

184

Pacinian vs Ruffini corpuscles

Both myelinated Abeta fibers; Both tough, proprioception, vibration; Pacinian are rapidly adapting, Ruffini are slow

185

Tranexamic Acid

Like Aminocaproic acid, inhibits fibrinolysis

186

Leukoerythroblastic Peripheral Smear

Nucleated red cells, Immature white's = Bone marrow fibrosis or met cancer

187

Hepatoblastoma is associated with

FAP or Beckwith-Wiedeman

188

Most vulnerable areas of CNS to hypoxemia

(1) Pyramidal cells of Hippocampus and neocortex; (2) Purkinje cells of cerebelllum

189

Chronic rejection of lung transplant vs kidney

Inflammation of small bronchioles vs inflammation of vasculature in kidney

190

NO is synthesized by

Arginine + O2

191

Decreased activity of bacterial catalase peroxidase

Isoniazid resistance

192

Eggshell calcifications and birefringent particles surrounded by fibrous tissue

Silicosis

193

Berylliosis manifestation

Non-caseating granulomas without obvious particles

194

Too much IgA

Risk of N meningitidis

195

Conditions with Pulsus Paradoxus

COPD, Asthma, PE, Cardiac Tamponade, Constrictive Pericarditis

196

Injury causing Obturator n injury

Anterior Hip Dislocation, Iatrogenic

197

When are S3 and S4 normal

S3 in children, young adults, pregnancy; S4 in healthy older adults

198

ERBB1 is associated with

SCC of lung

199

ERBB2 associated with

Breast and Ovarian Cancer

200

Receptor for CMV

Integrins

201

Receptor for Rabies

nAChR

202

Receptor for Rhinovirus

ICAM1 (CD54)

203

Meningitis is infants >3mo

Strep pneumo, N meningitidis

204

MacConkey's is selective for

Gram negatives

205

Use of Fenfluramine, Dexfenfluramine, and Phentermine for >3mo -->

Pulmonary HTN

206

When does BP first fall in Pulmonary HTN

exercise

207

Ligament forming posterior wall of spinal canal

Flavum

208

Rb chromosome

13

209

Cholinergic innervation to blood vessels

No innervation to wall --> M receptors on endothelial cells --> Release NO (endothelium-derived relaxation factor)

210

NO --> cGMP -->

Ca efflux

211

Absolute contraindications to OCPs

Thromboembolic event, Stroke, Estrogen-dependent tumor, >35 and smoke, HyperTG, Liver disease, Pregnancy

212

Onset of DT timeline

48-72 hours (SNS hyperactivity, hallucinations, confusion)

213

Location of instussuseption

Ileocolic junction

214

Age >2 with intussuception

Look for lead point

215

Age of MMR vaccination

12-15 months

216

Diagnosis of Granuloma inguinale? Painful lesion?

Klebsiella inguinale --> Donovan bodies --> Initial lesion not painful

217

Diagnosis of Lymphogranuloma venereum

Intracytoplasmic chlamydial inclusion bodies

218

Donovanosis if untreated

Elephantitis

219

Treatment of Focal Seizures

Carb, Gaba, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin

220

Treatment of Generalized seizures (TC and Myoclonic)

Lamotrigene, Levetiracetam, Topiramate, Valproic Acid

221

Myoclonic seizures

Generalized, No loss of consciousness or postictal state

222

Fluphenazine

DA antagonist - Tourette's

223

Metyrapone

Blocks 11-B-Hydroxylase --> Lack of pituitary feedback --> Incr ACTH

224

Autoimmune Hypophysitis

ACUTE (vs Sheehan which is more subacute/chronic) - Cortisol def, Visual field defects

225

Histology of Dubin Johnson

Although grossly black, histology may be relatively normal, with epinephrine metabolites in lysosomes

226

Most patients on Amiodarone can expect at least one of:

Hepatitis, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Thyroid, Blue-gray skin, Corneal micro-depositis - Holy Fuck, This Blows Cock

227

Blank contracts behind food bolus to initiate peristaltic cascade

Cricopharyngeus

228

Cricopharyngeal dysfunction

Failure of relaxation during swallowing --> Choking of "food sticking"

229

Among acute viral exanthems, which have maculopapular rash that begins on face and spreads to trunk/extremities

Measles and Rubella

230

Compared to measles, rash of rubella typically

Spreads faster, doesn’t coalesce or darken

231

Roseola Infanatum

HHV6 - Transient rash on trunk and chest a few days after fever subsides

232

Colorado tick fever

Fever, vomitting, myalgias, weakness

233

Paneth cells

Base of intestinal crypts --> Phagocytic and secretory properties

234

Which insulin binds albumin

Detemir

235

Infections causing pancreatitis

Mumps, Coxsackie, Mycoplasma

236

Drugs causing pancreatitis

Azathioprine, Sulfasalazine, Furosemide, Valproic acid

237

Incr oxalate in urine is associated with

Intestinal malabsorption syndromes (eg Crohn's)

238

In addition to Na and GABA actions, Valproate blocks

NMDA

239

High AV concentration gradient of anesthetic

More extracted from arterial blood --> More must be absorbed to saturate blood and then brain --> Slower onset of action

240

Type of beta blockers that can cause hyperkalemia

B2 (nonselective)

241

Myocardium can endure ischemia for how long without serious irreversible consequences

20-30 minutes

242

Congenital cataracts, Deafness, PDA

Congenital Rubella

243

Trochanteric Bursitis

Chronic, intermittent pain in grown that radiates to lateral thigh

244

Muscle biopsy of ALS

Denervation atrophy = Small angular fibers; Fiber grouping, Group atrophy, Target fibers

245

EMG of ALSO

Polyphasic or Giant motor unit potentials

246

Fibrillations vs Fasciculations

Fibrillations are from individual fibers on EMG; Fasciculations appear as ripple on surface

247

Parvovirus in adults

Mimics RA, but is transient

248

Mechanisms of AD therapy

(1) Incr ACh; (2) Anti-oxidant; (3) NMDA block

249

Donepazil

AChEsterase inhibitor

250

Memantine

NMDA antagonist for Alzheimer's

251

Primary vs secondary follicles

Primary are dense/dormant; Secondary are pale and germinal

252

LN Medullary cords vs sinuses

Cords contain B cells, plasma cells, mac's; Sinuses contain reticular cells and macrophages

253

CN III courses between what as it leaves midbrain

PCA and Superior Cerebellar arteries

254

Refsum Disease

Peroxisome alpha oxidation impaired --> CNS probs from accumulated Phyntanic acid

255

Where does Ketogenesis occur?

Mitochondria

256

CD34 stains

Endothelium

257

TGF-a

Predominantly secreted be carcinomas --> Epithelial growth stimulator

258

Back pain relieved by siting and bending forward

Spinal stenosis

259

Back pain relieved by exercise but not rest w/ prolonged morning stiffness

Ankylosing Spondylitis

260

Femoral head osteonecrosis in children

Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

261

N meningitidis is most commonly treated with

Pen G

262

First line for Strep pneumo

Ceftriaxone

263

Low potency first gen anti-psychotic side effects

Anti-H, Anti-ACh, Anti-a1

264

Lesion to Anterior Medial Pons

Ipsilateral CNV; Contralateral ataxic hemiparesis

265

Only CN that decussates

Trochlear (CN IV)

266

Causes of Hyperuricemia

Pyrazinamide, Thiazides, Furosemide, Niacine, Cyclosporine - Painful Tophi and Feet Need Care

267

Necrolytic Migratory Erythema + Diabetes

Glucagonoma

268

Elevated urine what in Neuroblastoma

VMA, HVA

269

Fecal mononuclear leukocytes in diarrheal illness

Salmonella Typhi

270

Vibrio cholera vs Campylobacter jejuni

V cholera grows on alkaline selective media; Campylobacter is microaerophilic and thermophilic

271

Diarrhea with peripheral eosinophilia

Strongyloides, Ancylostoma, Ascaris, Toxocarna, Trichinella (not Giardia or Entamoeba)

272

Genetic Dilated CM is due to

Cytoskeletal or mitochondrial abnormalities

273

Periportal Hepatic Fibrosis

Chronic viral hepatitis

274

Methylmalonic Acidemia

Deficiency of Methylmalonyl CoA Mutase (B12)

275

Vitamin required for transamination reactions

B6

276

Kidney stones requiring high pH

Struvite, Calcium Phosphate

277

Sensation to external auditory meatus

Mostly CNV, except for posterior wall (vagus)

278

Polyol pathway

Glucose --> Sorbitol --> Fructose

279

Aldose Reductase converts sugars to

Corresponding sugar alcohols

280

E coli that doesn't ferment sorbitol or produce glucoronidase

O157:H7 shiga-toxin-producing

281

Toxins that activate Guanylate Cyclase

ETEC, Yersinia enterocolitica

282

Ustekinumab

IL-12, IL-23 (psoriasis) --> Inhibits differentiation of Th1, Th17

283

Statins plus Cholestyramine

Dose 4 hours apart

284

Innervation by Superior Laryngeal N

External --> Cryothyroid; Internal --> Sensory above vocal cords

285

Dysplasia vs Carcinoma

Reversible

286

Low vs High Grade Dysplasia

Full thickness of epithelium

287

High grade dysplasia =

Carcinoma in situ

288

Blank --> P-late Rb --> Blank

Cyclin D/CDK4, Cyclin E/CDK6 --> P-late Rb --> Releases E2F --> G1 to S

289

p27

Cell cycle inhibitor that binds cyclin-dependent kinases

290

What causes green color of pus in pneumonia

MPO from neutrophils

291

IgG4 antibodies to PLA2R in podocytes

Membranous Nephropathy

292

NOD2 mutation

Crohn's (activates NFKB)

293

Axonal reaction

Neuron 24-58 hrs after axon severed = (1) Swollen, rounded; (2) Displaced nucleus; (3) Nissl dispersed

294

Parvovirus tropism

Globoside (P antigen)

295

Ability to detect a difference when one exists

Power

296

Indicator of Mitral Regurg severity

Presence of S3

297

When does MV mid systolic click occur earlier

Decr LV volume

298

Cyclophosphamide requires blank to function

Bioactivation by 450

299

6-MP is activated by? Inactivated by?

Activated by HGPRT, Inactivated by Xanthine Oxidase

300

CMV treatment that causes seizures, hypoCa, hypoMg

Foscarnet

301

bHCG threshold

8 days serum, 14 days urine

302

Linear Regression vs Correlation Coefficienct

Correlation coefficient only produces single number describing strength and magnitude of association

303

Linear Regression vs Correlation Coefficienct

Correlation coefficient only produces single number describing strength and magnitude of association

304

Estrogen and TBG

Decreases catabolism of TBG

305

Estrogen and TBG

Decreases catabolism of TBG

306

Speed of Hb movement during electrophoresis

HbA > HbS > HbC