Mixed Block Notes 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mixed Block Notes 5 Deck (70):
1

FA vs Glucose oxidation in ATP generation and O2 use

FA oxidation produces more ATP, but uses more O2 per ATP

2

Receptor mediating Mydriasis

Alpha 1

3

Receptor mediating uterine relaxation

Beta 2 (tocolysis = Terbutaline, Ritodrine)

4

Mom and infant sequelae of rubella

Mom = Polyarthritis/Polyarthralgia; Infant = Sensorineural deafness, Cataracts, Cardiac malformations (PDA)

5

Intracellular pyrophophate granules in a bug

C diph (methylene blue staining)

6

Conus Medullaris Syndrome

L2 lesion = Flaccid paralysis of bladder and rectum, impotence, saddle anesthesia

7

Cauda Equina Syndrome

Radiating back pain, Saddle anesthesia, Loss of anocutaneous reflex, Bowel and bladder dysfunction, Loss of ankle-jerk reflex w/ plantar flexion weakness

8

Saddle anesthesia and Loss of anocutaneous reflex =

S2-S4 lesion (cauda equina syndrome)

9

Danazol MOA

Synthetic androgen for endometriosis and hereditary angioedema

10

Mifepristone MOA

Synthetic steroid with anti-progestin and anti-glucocorticoid effects

11

Mitotane MOA

Adrenocorticolytic used primarily for adrenocortical carcinoma

12

Maintenance Dose =

Cpss x CL / [Bioavailability fraction]

13

Half life =

(Vd x 0.7) / CL

14

Loading Dose =

(Vd x Cpss) / [Bioavailability Fraction]

15

Methoxamine MOA

Selective a1 agonist

16

a2 activation effects

Decr insulin, Decr lipolysis, Decr aqueous humor production, Incr Platelet Aggregation

17

b1 activaiton effects

HR/Contractility, Incr Renin and Lipolysis

18

b2 activation effects

Vasodilation/Bronchodilation; Incr Lipolysis and Insulin; Decr uterine tone; Ciliary muscle relaxation and acqueous humor production

19

Recurrent kidney stones in young patient indicates

Inborn error of metabolism

20

Sodium Cyanide-Nitroprusside test

Detects presence of (sulfhydryl groups) urine cystine (converts cystine to cysteine and nitroprusside binds to make purple)

21

Treatment of Cystinuria

Hydration and Alkalinization of urine

22

Microscopic finding of irreversible cardiac ischemic injury

Vacuoles and Phospholipid-containing amorphous densities w/in mitochondria

23

Glandular epithelial changes from Proliferative to Secretory stages in endometrium

Pseudostratified, elongated, mitotically active epithelial cells --> Acquire large cytoplasmic vacuoles

24

Features that differentiate LEMS from MG

Hypo/areflexia, Autonomic symptoms, Classic incremental response to repetitive stimuli

25

Pyruvate Carboxylase activity is increased by

Acetyl-CoA

26

Citrate is a regulator of

Positive regulator of AcCoA Carboxylase, F-1,6-BP; Negative of PFK1 and 2 (inhibiting glycolysis)

27

Narcolepsy with Cataplexy is most often caused by

Lack of Hypocretin 1/2 (Orexin A/B) from Lateral Hypothalamus

28

Elevatd 14-3- protein in CSF

CJD

29

Low CSF 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid

Impulsive, destructive behaviors

30

How to differentiate syphillis from other spirochetes on darkfield

Motility

31

H ducreyi requires what in culture

Factor X (like H flu)

32

Fever and sore throat in pt with hyperthyroidism being treated

AGRANULOCYTOSIS

33

Arthralgias with PTU

50% develop ANCA, some develop arthralgias and glomerulonephritis

34

Abdominal pain, distension, fever, diarrhea, shock in Ulcerative Colitis

Possibility of Toxic Megacolon

35

Alveolar proteases (eg. elastase) are produced by

Macrophages and PMNs

36

Acute Hypotension, Tachycardia, Elevated CVP (JVD) with Pulsus paradoxus

Cardiac Tamponade

37

Reid Index

Chronic Bronchitis --> Ratio of Gland thickness to total thickness of wall between epithelium and cartilage

38

When not to use Probenicid for Hyperuricemia

Poor renal function, Risk for uric acid stones or uric acid nephropathy

39

MOA of Rasburicase

Urate Oxidase: Uric Acid --> Allantoin

40

CHOP therapy is for

Non-hodgkin lymphoma

41

Herpesvirus drug that doesn't require viral kinase

Cidofovir, Foscarnet

42

Peritrichious Flagella

Characteristic of highly motile organisms such as Proteus mirabilis

43

"serpentine" or "medusa head" chains on microscopy

B anthracis

44

How does tetanus toxin causes paralysis

Wound --> Motor Neuron Axons --> Spinal Cord --> Inhibits inhibitory motor neuron

45

Features of Edwards Syndrome

Rocker bottom, Micrognathia, Low set ears, Clenched hands, Prominent Occiput, ASD/VSD, Omphalocele, Horeshoe kidney

46

Features of Patau Syndrome

Microcephaly, Holoprosencephaly, Microphtalmia, Polydactyly, Cleft lip/palate, Rocker bottom feet, Cystic kidneys, VSD

47

Methods of Isoniazid resistance

(1) Decr expression of catalase-peroxidase enzyme necessary for activation; (2) Modification of protein binding site

48

Rheumatic aortic disease usually produces

Combined AS and Aortic Regurgitation

49

Acanthocytes indicate

Abetalipoproteinemia

50

Which genes play major role in Type 1 DM

HLA-DQ and DR

51

Pancreatic islet amyloid deposition is seen in

Type 2 DM (universal)

52

Dose effects of dopamine

Low = D1 + B1; High = D1 + B1 + A1

53

Sensory innervation of Deep Fibular Nerve

Between first and second toes

54

Trauma or sustained pressure (cast) to the neck of the fibular

Injury to the common peroneal nerve

55

Basophil granules contain

Heparin, Histamine, SRS-A

56

What activates ALA synthase

CYP inducers, Barbiturates, Anti-epileptics, EtOH, Smoking

57

What inhibits ALA synthase

Heme, Glucose

58

Conversion of 1,3-BPG to 2,3-BPG is increased in

Hypoxia, Chronic Anemia

59

Babesiosis

Malaria-like illness w/ prediliction for asplenic patients

60

Toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent causes

flu-like illness

61

Brucellosis causes

Fever, malaise, LAD, HSM

62

Childreen 1-3 with gingivostomatitis characterized with intranuclear inclusions

HSV-1

63

MOA of Mesna

Binds Acrolein (toxic metabolite of cyclophosphamide)

64

Atypical Depression

Improvement in mood in response to something positive

65

MAOi's are used for

Atypical Depression, Anxiety, Refractory

66

Jejunal, Ileal, and Colonic Atresia are caused by

Vascular accidents in utero, NOT abnormal fetal development

67

Presentation of Follicular Lymphoma

Indolent course, Painless lymph node enlargement or abdominal discomfort from abdominal mass

68

Presentation of Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

Aggressive --> Large LN or extranodal mass (oropharyngeal lymphoid tissue and GI tract commonly involved)

69

Presentation of Hairy Cell Leukemia

Splenomegaly, Pancytopenia in older men

70

DNA Polymerase I vs III

I has 5' to 3' exonuclease activity (removes RNA primer, performs repair of damage), 5' to 3' polymerase activity, and 3' to 5' exonuclease activity; III performs bulk of replication