Mixed Block Notes 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mixed Block Notes 8 Deck (68):
1

46 XY with normal Leydig cells but total absence of Sertoli

Male external genitalia (DHT); Both Female and Male internal genitalia (need Sertoli to produce MIF)

2

Treatment of pinworm (Enterobius)

Albendazole

3

Diethylcarbamazine is used to treat

Loa Loa, Wuchereria bancrofti

4

Ivermectin is used to treat

Strongyloides, Onchocerciasis

5

Nifurtimox is used to treat

Trypanosomes, including Chagas

6

Praziquantel is used to treat

Schistosoma, Clonorchis, Tenia, Diphyllobothrium - Praise the SC TD

7

Don't use colchicine in

Pregnancy, Renal dysfunction

8

Glucocorticoids inhibit what step of PG synthesis

LPA2

9

Preferred treatment of acute gouty arthritis in elderly or renal failure

Glucocorticoids

10

Specific inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase

Zileuton --> Inhibits LTB4, C4, D4, E4

11

Monteleukast MOA

LTD4 receptors

12

Stimulation of B1 receptors in heart causes what 3 effects:

(1) + Inotropy; (2) Weak + chronotropy; (3) Incr conduction velocity

13

FGF contributions

Angiogenesis, Embryonic development, Hematopoeisis, Wound repair

14

Incr LV diastolic pressure in paitent with suspect Mitral Stenosis

Aortic valve also dysfunctional

15

Mechanism of Ciguatoxin and Batrachotoxin

Binds Na channel, keeping it open --> persistent depolarization

16

Toxin that acts similarly to Tetrodotoxin

Saxitoxin

17

What increases solubility of cysteine

High pH - So risk of cystine stone with low pH

18

Cystine shares transporter with

Ornithine, Arginine, Lysine

19

OTC deficiency symptoms

Hyperammonemia, Mental retardation

20

Daptomycin is not effective in treating

Gram negatives; Pneumonia (surfactant)

21

Terbinafine MOA

Squalene Epoxidase

22

Effectiveness of Unfractionated Heparin vs LMWH

Unfractionated has equal activity against Factor Xa and Thrombin; LMWH has greater activity against Factor Xa than thrombin

23

How to separate Gamma hemolytic Strep's

Enterococci is PYR+, Grows in bile and NaCl; Bovis is PYR-, grows in bile but not NaCl

24

How to separate Alpha hemolytic Strep

Viridans is Optochin resistant and Bile insoluble

25

Effect of TNFa on Insulin receptor

Phosphorylates serine residues of Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 --> Decr activity

26

Phosphorylation of serine residues of Insulin Receptor Substrate 1

TNFa, Catecholamins, Glucocorticoids, Glucagon --> Insulin resistance

27

Papillary Thyroid cancer histology

Large cells w/ overlapping nuclei, Finely dispersed chromatin, Ground glass appearance = Orphan Annie

28

Benign follicular thyroid adenoma vs carcinoma

Invasion of vessels or capsule

29

Corneal reflex pathway

Nasociliary V1 --> Temporal branch of VII

30

Contents of Superior Orbital Fissue

CN III, V1 branches, CNIV, CNVI, Superior Ophthalmic veins

31

Bleeding in CKD patient

Uremic toxins --> Impair platelet aggregation

32

HIV Bloody diarrhea - Hemorrhagic polypoidal lesions, Spindle cells with surrounding blood vessel proliferation

Kaposi sarcoma

33

Chronic rejection of lung transplant

Small airways --> Bronchiolitis obliterans

34

Most common cause of elevated AFP

Dating error - Confirm with fetal US

35

Decreased Estriol on Triple Test

Placental insufficiency

36

Retrolental fibroplasia

Retinopathy of prematurity - Neovascularization from hypoxia and oxygen therapy

37

Serum added to mixture of cardiolipin, lecithin, cholesterol

Rapid Plasma Reagin test

38

7a hydroxylase

Cholesterol --> Bile Salts

39

Tholase

Condenses two equivalents of Acetyl-CoA to form Acetoacetyl-CoA --> Substrate for HMG CoA Reductase

40

Extremely high hCG may cause

Hyperemesis gravidarum, Pre-eclampsia, Hyperthyroidism, Theca-lutein cysts

41

Drugs that increase Lithium levels

Thiazides (not loops), ACEi's, NSAIDs

42

Lithium reabsorption in kidney is linked to

Na reabsorption

43

Major AA responsible for transferring nitrogen to liver for disposal

Alanine

44

Hepatic tumor that can regress after OCT discontinuation

Hepatic Adenoma

45

Most common benign liver tumor

Cavernous Hemangioma

46

Mechanism of Edema and Lethal factors (anthrax)

Edema = cAMP; Lethal = Protease that inhibits MAPK

47

Bordatella pertussis toxins

Pertussis = Gi ribosylation --> cAMP; AC toxin = AC --> cAMP

48

Location and symptoms of Germinomas

Pineal --> (1) Precocious puberty, (2) Obstructive hydrocephalus, (3) Parinaud

49

Functions of Thyroid Peroxidase

(1) Oxidation of iodide to iodine; (2) Iodination of thyroglobulin tyrosine residues; (3) Iodotyrosine coupling to form T3 and T4

50

Anti-TPO

Hashimoto's

51

Chronic lymphedema is a risk for developin what skin tumor

Angiosarcoma

52

Spongiosa filling medullary canal with no mature trabeculae

Osteopetrosis

53

Squatting vs Passive leg raise

Squatting increases both Preload and Afterload, while Passive leg raise just Preload

54

How to decrease MVP murmur

Decr LV volume, bringing valve leaflets into a more normal anatomic arrangement

55

In severe MVP, the murmur becomes more

Holosystolic

56

Histology of MVP

Attenuation of fibrosa (collagen) layer; Thickening of spongiosa layer thru deposition of mucoid (myxomatous) material; Thinning of collagenous core of chordae tendineae

57

Chromium deficiency

Glucose intolerance (GLUT cofactor), Peripheral neuropathy

58

Selenium deficiency

Muscle pain and weakness, Dilated CM

59

Copper deficiency

Microcytic anemia (ferrochetolase), Aortic dissection (elastic tissue), Poor wound healing (lysyl oxidase)

60

Only bile acid that is not reabsorbed in the terminal ileum

Lithocholic acid

61

Magnesium def

Hypocalcemia with Tetany, Tachycardia

62

Magnesium excess

Neuromuscular depression, Bradycardia

63

Congenital defect in Cytochrome b5 reductase

This reduces ferrous hb to ferric in methemoglobinemia

64

Free radicals from drugs and alcohol-related fatty change affect which zone of liver

III

65

Ubiquinated cytokeratin intermediate filament in hepatocytes in alcoholic liver disease

Mallory bodies

66

Nephrocalcinosis

Metastatic calcification of renal tubules --> Diabetes insipidus

67

Chemo regimen for Hodgkin

Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine

68

AE of Dacarbazine

Azospermia