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Flashcards in Vaccines Deck (36)
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1

3 main side effects ***

infection - improper inactivation or person IC
inflammation and anaphylactic reaction - contaminates or preservatives
neurological and autoimmune - rare antigen cross reaction

2

what is thiomersol

mercury containing preservative
ethyl mercury which is easily eliminated by the body and prevents growth of the bacteria
has been targeted for causing autism

3

capsular polysaccharide effector mechanism

b cell response as t-independent manner

4

conjugation of polysaccharides to a protein carrier forms peptide antigens which generate what effector mechanism

recruit antigen specific CD4+ t helper cells in a t-dependent antibody response

5

protein antigens such as live attenuated vaccines generate what

CD8+ cytotoxic t cells

6

CD8+ effector mechanism

do not prevent infection but reduce/control INTRACELLULAR pathogens
either by direct killing through release of stuff or by indirect killing infected cells through cytokine release

7

CD4 cells effector mechanism

dont prevent infection but control/reduce extracellula and intracellular pathogens their homing and cytokine production

8

follicular t helper cells produce IL 21 providing...

B cell help

9

t helper 1 cells produce interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor, and IL2 involved in ...

protection against intracellular pathogens

10

t helper 2 cells produce IL4,5,13 and....

respond to extracellular pathogens

11

th17 cells produce IL17,22,26 and ...

contribute to mucosal defence
ex.strep pneumo

12

what are human pattern recognition receptors

toll like receptors
recognize specific parts of an antigen and present it to the MHC

13

MHC class 1 = ___ pathogen

intracellular

14

MHC class 2 = ___ pathogen

extracellular

15

describe initation of a vaccine response

the pathogen associated pattern in the vaccine antigen attracts monocytes and dendritic cells and if the danger signal is loud enough it activates them
activation changes their surface receptor and they migrate back to the lymph node where B and T lymphocytes are activated

16

describe killed vaccine

heat or formaldehyde killed pathogen
ex. salk polio

17

describe live attenuated vaccine

selection of less pathogenic variants
ex. sabian polio, MMR

18

describe subunit vaccine

purified or genetically altered structural component of a pathogen
ex. hep B, influenza injection

19

describe conjugate vaccines

combo of multiple components to increase immunogenicity and memory

20

what are toxoids

toxins that are inactivated by mutation or chemcial treatment that are immunogenic but not pathogenic
ex.diptheria, tetanus

21

describe DNA vaccines

inject the gene that makes the protein or antigen

22

5 features of effective vaccines

safe: not cause illness or death
protective: protect against illness from exposure to a live pathogen
sustained protection: years
induces neutralizing antibody
induces protective t cells

23

what are neutralizing antibodies

prevent infection of cells that cant be replaced

24

3 types of adjuvants

oil in water emulsion
saponin
aluminum

25

3 main jobs of adjuvants

increase uptake by macropahges
delay release of antigen
induction of costimulators in macrophages

26

complete freuends adjuvant

oil in water with dead mycobacteria
does all 3 things

27

freunds adjuvant with MDP

oil in water with muramyl dipeptide and constituent of mycobacteria
does all 3 things

28

incomplete freunds adjuvant

oil in water emulsion that enhances macrophage uptake and delays antigen release

29

immune stimulatory cmoplexes

matrix of saponin containing viral proteins
delivers the antigen to the cytosol
allows induction of cytotoxic t cells

30

formation of inactived or killed vaccines

bacteria etc grown in culture then killed by heat or formaldehye