Vascular GI Diseases (Tombazzi and Nichols) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vascular GI Diseases (Tombazzi and Nichols) Deck (52)
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31

upper or lower acute GI bleed is more common

upper

32

epidemiology of acute upper GI bleed

men and the elderly

33

T or F: most acute upper GI bleeding requires intervention

F: 80% are self limiting

34

causes of acute upper GI bleed

Peptic ulcers
Gastritis and duodenitis
Tumors
Vascular malformation
Esophagitis
Varices
Other

35

Endoscopy can predict the risk of re-bleeding in duodenal ulcers. what finding on endoscopy is assc with the greatest risk of re-bleeding? lowest?

active bleeding

white ulcers

36

duodenal ulcers located ___ are most likely to bleed and rebleed

high on lesser curvature of stomach (how is this a duodenal ulcer, but whatevs?) and inferior wall of the duodenal bulb

37

are gastric or duodenal ulcers more likely to bleed

duodenal

38

esophageal varcies are often secondary to

portal HTN and cirrhosis
**Predictive factors fro bleeding include size and grade of liver dysfunction

39

treatment for esophageal varices

endoscopic banding

40

Gastric varices may occur as a result of ...

plenic vein thrombosis resulting from pancreatitis or pancreatic malignancy

41

caused by forceful gastric mucosa prolapse with retching

Mallory-Weiss Tear

42

Treatment of Mallory Weiss Tear

80-90% spontaneously resolve so only need to stabilize patient

43

What infections can cause upper GI bleed

CMV and Herpes

44

What is the most common cases of acute lower GI bleeding

diverticulosis and angiodysplasia

45

What is the most common cases of chronic lower GI bleeding

hemorrhoids and neoplasia

46

What causes the bleeding in diverticulosis

results from penetration of a colonic artery into the dome of a diverticula

47

What is angiodysplasia?

degenerative change in blood vessels (become tortuous and dilated) then then bleed

48

Where in the GI tract does angiodysplasia typically occur?

cecum and right colon
**usually multiple of them at once

49

angiodysplasia can be secondary to...

advanced age, chronic renal failure, prior radiation (if in rectum), watermelon stomach, osler-weber-rendu

50

what are hemorrhoids

a real pain in the ass!! badadum...

Variceal dilations of anal and perianal venous plexus

51

hemorrhoids develop secondary to

persistent elevated venous pressure
(constipation, pregnancy)

52

What is the difference between external and internal hemorroids?

External hemorrhoids:
from inferior rectal vein, below pectinate line, PAINFUL

Internal hemorrhoids:
superior rectal vein, above pectinate line, PAINLESS