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Flashcards in Venous Thrombosis Deck (55)
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1

Give examples of arterial thrombotic events.

* Coronary
* Cerebral
* Peripheral

2

Give examples of venous thrombotic events.

* DVT
* PE

3

____ muscles squeeze blood up through the veins

Calf

4

What kind of system are arterial thrombus found?

High pressure system

5

What process has a role in the formation of an arterial thrombus?

Atherosclerosis

6

What is the thrombus formed in an arterial thrombus like?

Rich in platelets !!

7

How is an arterial thrombus treated?

* Aspirin and other anti-platelet drugs
* Modify risk factors for atherosclerosis

8

What kind of system is a venous thrombus found in?

LOW pressure system

9

What is the main risk factor for a venous thrombus?

Blood stasis !!

10

What does NOT happen in the formation of a venous thrombosis?

Platelet activation

11

What is the clot like in a venous thrombosis?

Rich in fibrin – due to activation of the coagulation cascade

12

What triad helps us to understand how a venous thrombosis occurs?

Virchow’s triad: stasis, vessel wall, hypercoagulability

13

What is the 'vessel wall' mentioned in virchows triad referring to?

Valves

(esp. if had a previous VT as valve will already be damaged, and blood will be able to fall backwards).

14

Why does the risk of venous thrombosis increase with age?

Valves degenerate with age

15

How is a venous thrombosis treated?

Anti-coagulation

(not anti-platelets as platelets aren’t the problem here)

e.g. heparin / warfarin / new oral anti-coagulants

16

How does a DVT present?

* Limb feels hot, swollen and tender
* Pitting oedema

17

What Ix do you want to do to find out where a clot is in the leg?

Doppler US

18

List various causes of a PE.

* Pulmonary infarction.
* Pleuritic chest pain – knife-like pain on inspiration.
* Cardiovascular collapse/death.
* Hypoxia.
* Right heart strain.

19

What ECG pattern is suggestive of a PE?

SI QIII TIII pattern – deep S wave in lead I, Q wave in III, inverted T wave in III.

20

What is the population risk of a VTE?

1/1000 per year

21

What is the yearly risk of a VTE in: i) young adults? Ii) elderly people?

i) 1/10,000
ii) 1/100

22

What is the lifetime risk of a VTE?

2.5%

23

What are the risk factors for a VTE?

* Age
* Obesity
* Pregnancy
* Puerperium
* Oestrogen therapy - OCP, HRT
* Previous DVT/PE
* Trauma/surgery
* Malignancy
* Paralysis
* Infection
* Thrombophilia

24

What is the biggest risk factor for a VTE?

A previous VTE

25

What are the risk factors for a VTE in terms of STASIS?

* Age
* Obesity
* Pregnancy
* Previous DVT/PE
* Trauma/surgery
* Malignancy
* Paralysis

26

What are the risk factors for a VTE in terms of VESSEL WAL?

* Age
* Previous DVT/PE

27

What are the risk factors for VTE in terms of HYPERCOAGULABILTY?

* Age
* Pregnancy
* Puerperium
* Oestrogen therapy - OCP, HRT
* Trauma/surgery
* Malignancy
* Infection
* Thrombophilia

28

Clotting factors are acute phase proteins, so being unwell pushes clotting factors up

T

29

Oestrogen-containing pill – increases factor VIII, fools body into thinking you’re pregnant, risk of VTE rises 10-fold

T

30

How do all the risk factors for hypercoagulability increased the risk of a VTE?

They are associated with the release of tissue factor, raised VWF and factor VIII