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Flashcards in Bleeding Disorders Deck (69)
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1

In what layer are endothelia cells found?

Tunica intima

2

What things does formation of the platelet plug involve?

Involves endothelial cells, collagen, subendothelial fibrils, VWF and platelets

3

Why are women much more likely to present with vWF factor deficiency?

Women are much more likely to present with VWF than men as they have regular periods and menorrhagia whereas men don’t usually present until they have surgery

4

What can the causes of failure of the platelet plug to form be differentiated into?

1. Vascular

2. Platelets - reduced number/reduced function

3. Von Willebrand Factor

5

Vascular abnormalities can be either _________ or _________

Hereditary or acquired

6

Hereditary vascular abnormalties are common

FALSE - they are rare

7

Give an example of a hereditary vascular abnormality.

Marfan's

8

Give examples of acquired vascular abnormalities which can result in failure of formation of the platelet plug.

Henoch-Schonlein Purpura

Children, affecting mucous membranes, purpuric rash on lower limbs, GI bleeding (PR blood), but self-limiting.

9

Why is age an acquired vascular abnormality that results in failure of the platelet plug to form.

As we age we use collagen

10

_______ is a vitamin D deficiency seen in alcoholics who eat little fruit

Scurvy

11

What does scurvy cause?

Acquired vascular abnormality resulting in failure of the platelet plug to form

12

Outline the main clinical features seen in someone with an acquired vascular abnormality resulting in failure of the platelet plug to form.

Most likely to get a non-blanching purpuric rash on the lower limbs.

May also get bleeding from small vessels in mucous membranes - epistaxis, blood blisters in mouth

Retinal haemorrhages.

13

What is thrombocytopenia?

LOW platelets

14

What can thrombocytopenia be classified as?

Can be hereditary or acquired, although acquired is significantly more common

15

How can acquired thrombocytopenia be classified?

* Reduced production (marrow failure)
or
* Increased destruction

16

What are 3 causes of peripheral platelet destruction?

1. Coagulopathy e.g DIC
2. Autoimmune
3. Hypersplenism

17

Give example of a coagulopathy which causes peripheral platelet destruction.

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

18

What happens in DIC?

Haemostasis is activated and clotting factors and platelets are used up

19

What is the most common autoimmune cause of peripheral platelet destruction?

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

20

What happens in ITP?

Everyone has white blood cells which make things called antibodies which recognise foreign material (things that aren’t meant to be there) in our body

In autoimmune conditions, the antibodies get a bit confused and attack the body’s own cells. Antibodies stick to platelets and cause them to be removed.

21

What is alcoholics liver disease a common cause of?

Hypersplenism

22

Why does hypersplenism result in peripheral platelet destruction?

Anything that makes the spleen enlarged will lead to thrombocytopenia as the spleen is responsible for the breakdown of platelets

23

How does alcoholics liver disease a common cause of hypersplenism?

Alcoholics liver disease causes cirrhosis and scarring of the liver, this leads to varices, back pressure of fluid, portal hypertension and eventually an enlarged spleen - hypersplenism

24

Platelet functional defects can be _________ or _________

Hereditary or acquired

25

Suggest acquired causes of platelet functional defects.

Drugs – aspirin, NSAID’s (stop platelets sticking together).
Renal failure – uraemia can lead to problems with platelet function.

26

How is inherited vWF factor deficiency inherited?

Autosomal dominant

27

vWF factor deficiency can be _________ or ________

Hereditary or acquired

28

Is hereditary vWF factor deficiency common or rare?

COMMON, but variable severity (generally mild)

29

Who is vWF factor deficiency seen more in?

Women – because it affects their periods

(although it is equally as common in males and females).

30

What does vWF factor deficiency lead to problems with?

Problems with primary haemostasis where vWF is important for helping platelets stick together.