Anaemia and Microcytic Anaemias Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anaemia and Microcytic Anaemias Deck (77)
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1

What is anaemia?

Reduced total red cell mass

2

Is it easy to measure total red cell mass?

NO - so this is not routinely done

3

As total red cell mass is difficult to measure, what can be done measured instead?

* Haemoglobin
* Haematocrit

4

Outline the Hb and haematocrit levels to diagnose anaemia in adult males.

* Hb <130g/L
* Hct 0.38-0.52

5

Outline the Hb and haematocrit levels to diagnose anaemia in adult females.

* Hb <120g/L
* Hct 0.37-0.47

6

Where does red blood cell production take place?

Bone marrow

7

What type of method is used to measure haemoglobin concentration?

Spectrophotometric method

8

Outline the steps in the method of measuring haemoglobin concentration.

* Burst (lyse) the red cells to create Hb solution
* Stabilise the Hb molecules (cyan-metHb)‏
* Measure the optical density (OD) at 540nm
* OD Proportional to the concentration (Beer's Law)
* Hb concentration calculated against known reference standard cyan-metHb concentration solution

9

How is haematocrit measured?

The ratio (also commonly expressed as the percentage) of the whole blood that is red cells if the sample was left to settle

10

In rare situations, haemoglobin/haematocrit are not good indicators of anaemia e.g a rapid bleed and haemodilution

T

11

In what situations are Hb/haematocrit not good indicators of anaemia?

* Rapid bleed
* Haemodilution

12

Describe why measuring Hb/haematocrit in a rapid bleed is not a good indicator of anaemia.

If 50% of blood volume is lost, the patient will obviously be anaemic as their red cell mass will have dropped by 50%

However, as both blood volume and red cell mass are decreased in proportion to eachother, the concentration of Hb will initially remain the same

True red cell mass is only apparent after a few days once fluid shifts have occurred

If you take measurements too early, you will not see a decrease of Hb

13

Describe why measuring Hb/haematocrit in haemodilution is not a good indicator of anaemia.

For example, later in pregnancy, plasma volume increases, making Hb concentration lower despite red cell mass being the same

14

What is increased red cell production known as?

Reticulocytosis

15

What is a reticulocyte?

A reticulocyte is a young red blood cell, just after it has left the bone marrow

16

Describe the appearance of a reticulocyte.

* Larger than the average cell
* Contains RNA
* Stains deep purple/red
* Polychromatic

17

Up regulation of reticulocyte production by the bone marrow in response to anaemia takes a few days

T

18

What can automated analysis of RBC's tell us about RBC's?

* Cell size
* Cell count
* Light-scattering properties

19

Outline the 3 measured indices of a red cell.

* The haemoglobin concentration
* The number of red cell (concentration)
* The size of the red cells (mean cell volume or MCV)

20

Outline the 3 calculated indices of a red cell.

* Haematocrit
* Mean cell haemoglobin
* Mean cell haemoglobin concentration

21

What does reticulocyte count assess?

Bone marrow response

22

By which 2 methods is anaemia classified?

* Pathophysiology
* Morphological characteristics

23

In terms of pathophysiology, anaemia can be classified as either __________ ____ or __________ __________

1. Increased loss
2. Decreased production

24

What 2 things can decreased production be due to?

* Hypo-proliferation – reduced amount of erythropoiesis
* Maturation abnormality – erythropoiesis is present but ineffective

25

What are the 2 most common causes of a maturation abnormality, which causes decreased production of red cells?

* Cytoplasmic defects – impaired haemoglobinisation
* Nuclear defects – impaired cell division

26

Microcytic anaemia has a ____ MCV

LOW

27

Macrocytic anaemia has a ____ MCV

HIGH

28

LOW RETICULOCYTE COUNT is seen when?

In a decreased production of red cells

29

HIGH RETICULOCYTE COUNT is seen when?

In increased loss or destruction of red cells

30

Where is haemoglobin synthesised?

Cytoplasm