Vertebral Column, Stability and Movement Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Radiology - Test 1 > Vertebral Column, Stability and Movement > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vertebral Column, Stability and Movement Deck (66):
1

Parts of a typical vertebrae

Body
Pedicle
Lamina
Vertebral foramen
Articulating process
Spinous process
Transverse process

2

What makes up vertebral arch?

Pedicle and lamina

3

What is spinal canal formed from

Vertebral foramen together

4

What rests in spinal canal?

Spinal cord

5

Articulating processes form what kind of joint?

Synovial

6

Purpose of spinous process

Muscle attachment

7

Purpose of transverse process

Muscle and ligament attachment

8

General function of all processes

Movement

9

What makes C1 unique

No body
anterior and posterior arches
Larger superior articulating processes that articulate iwht occipital condyles

10

What makes C2 unique?

Dens

11

C1 and C2 attachment

C2 dens attaches to anterior arch of C1

12

Cervical features

Transverse foramina
Small, bean shaped, body
Short, spinous process

13

Thoracic features

Articular facets for ribs
Heart shaped body
Elongated, posterio-inferior sloping spinous process

14

Lumbar features

Large, bean shaped body
Shortened, squared and posteriorly projecting spinous process

15

Size increases as you move which direction along spinal cord?

Down

16

2 notches on thoracic vertebrae

Superior intervertebral notch
Inferior intervertebral notch

17

Notches of thoracic form

Intervertebral foramen

18

Intervertebral foramen is...

Where spinal nerves exit spinal canal

19

Which types of joints does vertebral column have?

Cartilaginous joints at IV discs
Synovial joins between the superior and inferior articulating processes

20

Synovial joints of the spinal column called

Zygapophyseal joins

21

Intervertebral disc composed of

Anulus fibrosus - a series of concentric lamellae of connective tissue AND
Nucleus pulposis - fluid filled center

22

Nucleus pulposus acts as

Shock absorber

23

Anterior longitudinal ligament

Anterior of vertebral bodies
Checks extensions

24

Where is anterior longitudinal ligament renamed and to what?

Between C1 and C2 - atlantoaxial ligament
Between C1 and occipital - Anterior atlantaoccipital ligament

25

Posterior longitudinal ligament

Narrower than Anterior
Checks flexion

26

Where is posterior longitudinal ligament renamed?

C2 - tectorial ligament

27

Lateral herniation presses on

Spinal nerve

28

Central herniation presses on

Spinal cord or nerve fibers below spinal cord

29

Ligamentum flavum

Connects adjacent laminae and checks flexion of vertebral column

30

Where is ligamentum flavum renamed?

Between C1 and C2 - posterior atlantoaxial ligament
Between C1 and occipital - Posterior atlantaoccipital ligament

31

Interspinous ligaments

Connect adjacent spinous processes and check flexion

32

Supraspinous ligaments

Superficial portion of interspinous ligaments
Checks flexion

33

Nuchael ligament

Supraspinous ligament as it thickens in the cervical level

34

Functions of vertebral column

Protect spinal cord and nerves
Support weight
Rigid and flexible axis
Posture and locomotion

35

How many of each vertebrae?

C - 7
T - 12
L - 5
S - 5

36

Kyphotic

Primary curvatures
Thoracic and sacral
Concaver forward

37

Lordosic

Cervial and Lumbar
Concave backward

38

Movements of vertebral column

Amplified by sum of all small movements

39

Stable fracture

No spinal deformity or neurologic problems

40

Unstable fracutre

Difficult for spine to carry or distribute weight...can progress and cause further damage

41

Function of trapezious, latissimus dorsi, levator scapulae, rhomboid major and minor

Upper limb

42

Function of serratus posterior superior and serratus posterior inferior

Assists in holding epaxial muscles
Propioception
Respiration

43

Superficial back muscles (except trapezius) innervated by

Ventral primary rami of spinal nerves

44

Trapezius innervated by

CN XI

45

Intrinsic muscles of the back

Extend the vertebral column and cause lateral flexion...can also assist in flexion and rotation of the vertebral column
Epaxial

46

Intrinsic back muscles innervated by

Dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves

47

Superficial intrinsic back muscles

Spinotransverse group
Splenius capitis
Splenius cervicis
Helps to rotate and extend head

48

Intermediate intrinsic back muscles

Erector spinae

49

Parts and function of erector spinae

Ilicostalis
Longissimus
Spinalis

Vertebral column and head extension...lateral flexion

50

Deep intrinsic back muscles

Transversospinal group
Semispinalis capitis - 6-8
Semispinalis cervicis - 6-8
Multifudus - 3-5
Rotators - 1-2

51

Where are each type best seen and order in terms of deepness

Multifudus - Lumbar
Rotators - thoracic
Multifudus above rotators

52

Minor deep back muscles and functions

Interspinales - attach between adjacent spinous processes
Intertransversarii - attach between adjacent transverse processes
Leavotres Costarum - attach from transverse process to ribs

53

Suboccipital muscles and function

Obliquus capitis inferior
Obliquus capitis superior
Rectus capitis posterior major
Rectus capitis posterior mino
Movement of head and proprioception

54

Which make up suboccipial triangle?

Obliquus capitis inferior
Obliquus capitis superior
Rectus capitis posterior major

55

What is suboccipital triangle?

Where vertebral artery passes through

56

What are suboccipital muscles innervated by?

Suboccipital nerve

57

Greater occipital nerve passes through what and what is function?

Passes through the semispinalis capitis muscle to innervate skin over back of the head

58

Action of paradox

Epaxial muscles also play role in controlling flexion of the trunk by their controlled gradual relaxation during flexion

59

Vertebra porminens

C7 - first big bump

60

Contraction of spinotransverse group

Unilateral - rotation of head to ipsilateral side
Bilateral - extension of head

61

Muscles of erector spinae starting laterall

Iliocostalis, Longissumus, spinalis

62

Contraction of erector spinae

Bilateral - extends vertebral column and head
Unilateral - Lateral flexion of vertebral column

63

Suboccipital purpose

Head movement and propioception

64

Vertebral artery path

Through transverse foramen of cervical and through foramen magnum of the skull

65

Occipital neuralgia caused by

compression of greater occipital nerve

66

Greater occipital nerve passes through

semispinalis capitis