Veterinary Terminology: Blood and Lymphatics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Veterinary Terminology: Blood and Lymphatics Deck (58):
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the primary function of blood

to maintain a constant environment for the other living tissues of the body
transports nutrients, gases, and wastes to and from the cells of the body

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blood contains

proteins
white blood cells
antibodies
platelets
red blood cells
plasma
glucose
and many more required substances

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plasma

clear straw-colored liquid

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erythrocytes

red blood cells

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leukocytes

white blood cells

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thrombocytes

platelets
clotting cells

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blood cells originate from..

marrow cavity of bones

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red blood cells

carry oxygen and carbon dioxide

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white blood cells

fight infection

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hematopoietic stem cells

blood forming cells that red and white blood cells arise from

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erythroblast

immature erythrocyte

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shape and reason for, of red blood cells

biconcave
to increase surface area so that the absorption and release of gases can take place

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hemoglobin

composed of iron and protein
enables the erythrocyte to carry oxygen

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oxyhemoglobin

the combination of oxygen and hemoglobin
produces the bright red color of blood

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erythropoietin

hormone secreted by the kidney that stimulates the production of erythrocytes

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hemolysis

macrophages destroy worn-out erythrocytes

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bilirubin

yellow/orange pigment that created from heme releasing iron and decomposing during hemolysis
is excreted into the bile by the liver and then excreted in the stool

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five different types of mature leukocytes fall in these two types

polymorphonuclear granulocytic leukocytes
mononuclear agranulocytic

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polymorphonuclear granulocytic leukocytes

basophil
neutrophil
eosinophil

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mononuclear agranulocytic leukocytes

monocyte
lymphocyte

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granulocytes (PMNs)

the most numerous leukocytes

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basophils

contain dark-staining granules that stain with a basic dye
granules contain heparin and histamine

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heparin

anti-clotting substance

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histamine

a chemical released in allergic response

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eosinophils

contain granules that stain with eosin, a red acidic dye
they increase in allergic responses and engulf substances that trigger the allergies

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neutrophils

contain granules that are neutral. they do not stain intensely with either acidic or basic dye
are phagocytes that accumulate at sites of infection, where they ingest and destroy bacteria

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colony-stimulating factors (CSFs)

specific proteins that promote the growth of granulocytes in bone marrow

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polymorphonuclear

they have multi-lobed nuclei

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mononuclear

containing one large nucleus

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lymphocytes

are made in the bone marrow and lymph nodes and circulate both in the bloodstream and in the parallel circulating system, the lymphatic system
play an important role in the immune response that protects the body against infection
they can directly attack foreign matter and in addition make antibodies, which neutralize and can lead to the destruction of foreign antigens

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monocytes

are phagocytic cells that also fight disease
move from bloodstream into tissues (as macrophage) and dispose of dead and dying cells and other tissue debris by phagocytosis

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platelets
thrombocytes

are formed in red bone marrow from megakaryocytes
the main function is to help blood to clot

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megokaryocytes

giant cells with multi-lobed nuclei
breaks off tiny fragments to form platelets

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plasma

the liquid part of blood that consists of water, dissolved proteins, sugar, wastes, salts, hormones,and other substances

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four major plasma proteins

albumin
globulins
fibrinogen
prothrombin

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albumin

maintains the proper proportion (and concentration) of water in the blood

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edema

swelling
results when too much fluid from the blood "leaks" out into the tissues
mild form from too much salt, to severe from fire burns

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globulins

there are alpha, beta, and gamma
gamma are immunoglobulins

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immunoglobulins

are antibodies that bind to and sometimes destroy antigens

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antigens

foreign substances

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examples of immunoglobulins

IgG
IgA
IgM
IgD
IgE

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electrophoresis

separates immunoglobulins from other plasma proteins
an electrical current passes through a solution of plasma, the different proteins in plasma separate as they migrate at different speeds to the source of the electricity

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whole blood

cells and plasma

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transfusions of whole blood

are used to replace blood lost after injury, during surgery, or in sever shock.

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packed red cells

whole blood with most of the plasma removed
pRBC

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blood types

has a specific combination of factors (antigens and antibodies)
inherited
acquired by 6 months of age

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hemolysis

breakdown of red blood cells
may occur by transfusing with wrong blood type

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blood clotting
coagulation

a complicated process involving many different substances and chemical reactions
final result is the formation of a fibrin clot from the plasma protein fibrinogen

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platelets in blood clotting

clump, or aggregate, at the site of injury

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fibrin threads

form a clot by trapping red blood cells

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serum

clear fluid left by a clot after it tightens

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thrombi

clots
do not form in blood vessels unless the vessel is damaged or the flow of blood is impeded

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emboli

floating clots

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heparin

produced by tissue cells (especially the liver)
anticoagulant

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anemia

deficiency in erythrocytes or hemoglobin

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aplastic anemia

failure of blood cell production due to aplasia of bone marrow cells
the cause of most case is unknown (idiopathic)

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aplasia

absence of development, formation

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pancytopenia

occurs when stem cells fail to produce leukocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes

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