Veterinary Terminology: Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Veterinary Terminology: Respiratory System Deck (75):
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nostrils or nares

two openings in the nose where air enters the body

1

cilia

fine hairs in nostrils/nares

2

paranasal sinuses

are hollow, air containing spaces within the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity

3

mucus

a lubricating fluid

4

pharynx

where food/drink and air enter into the body

5

epiglottis

a flap of cartilage attached to the root of the tongue, preventing choking or aspiration of food

6

larynx

where air passes after passing through the epiglottis

7

trachea

is kept open by cartilaginous rings
are complete in some species and incomplete C-shaped in others
splits into two branches

8

bronchi

two branches divided from the trachea
leads to a separate lung and divides and subdivides into smaller and finer tubes (like branches on a tree)

9

bronchioles

the smaller bronchial branches
narrows into alveolar ducts

10

alveoli

the end of alveolar duct as a collection of air sacs
lined with a one-cell layer of epithelium
exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide gases with blood flowing through lung capillaries

11

erythrocytes

are in the blood and carry oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body and carry carbon dioxide back from parts of the body to lungs for exhalation/removal

12

diaphragm

separates the lungs from the abdominal cavity and aid in the process of breathing
contracts and descends with each inhalation (inspiration) and exhalation (expiration)

13

avian species

there is a large disparity in tracheal length
no diaphragm have air sacs instead
lungs are attached to the ribs
the tissue is non-expandable

14

crocodiles respiratory differences

well-developed lungs
no true diaphragm
primary muscle groups are the intercostal muscles and two transverse membranes, the post-pulmonary and the post-hepatic which act as diaphragm

15

most lizards and primitive snakes respiratory differences

have two paired lungs
highly evolved (left lung is reduced in size or absent)
basic pattern of respiration is an exhilation followed by inspiration followed by a non-ventilatory period varying in length

16

turtle lungs

are usually paired and rigid, located directly under the shell
bottom of lungs is attached to the abdominal organs
ventilation is achieved by the up and down movement of the viscera, resulting in intrapulmonary pressure changes

17

alveolus (alveoli)

air sac in the lung

18

bronchioles

smallest branches of the bronchi
terminal lead too alveolar ducts

19

bronchus

branch of the trachea that is a passageway into the lung

20

cilia

thin hairs attached to the mucous membrane epithelium lining the respiratory tract.
they clear bacteria and foreign substances from the lung

21

diaphragm

muscle separating the chest and abdomen

22

epiglottis

lid-like pieces of cartilage that covers the larynx, preventing food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing

23

expiration

breathing out

24

glottis

slit-like opening in the larynx

25

inspiration

breathing in

26

lobe

division of a lung

27

mediastinum

region between the lungs in the chest cavity
it contains trachea, heart, aorta, esophagus, and bronchial tubes

28

nares

openings through the nose carrying air into the nasal cavities

29

paranasal sinus

one of the air cavities in the bones near the nose

30

auscultation

listening to sounds within the body

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rale (crackle)

fine crackling sound heard on auscultation (during inspiration) when there is fluid in the alveoli

32

rhonchus (rhonchi)

loud rumbling sound heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by mucus

33

stridor

strained, high pitched relatively loud sound made on inspiration
associated with obstruction of the larynx or trachea

34

wheeze

continuos high pitched whistling sound heard when air is forced through a narrow space during inspiration or expiration

35

epistaxis

nosebleed
commonly results from irritation of nasal mucous membranes, trauma, clotting abnormalities or hypertension

36

bronchiectasis

chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection in the lower lobes of the lung

37

chronic bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchi persisting over time

38

atelectasis

incomplete expansion of the alveoli
collapsed, functionless, airless lung or portion of the lung

39

emphysema

hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls

40

pneumonia

acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of inflammatory reaction

41

pulmonary edema

swelling and fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles

42

pulmonary embolism

clot (thrombus) or other material lodges in the vessels of the lung

43

pleural effusion

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (cavity)

44

pneumothorax

collection of air in the pleural space (cavity)

45

thoracocentesis

surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space

46

thoracotomy

major surgical incision of the chest

47

thoracoscopy

visual examination of the chest via small incisions and use of an endoscope

48

tracheostomy

surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck

49

tracheotomy

incision into the trachea, usually temporary

50

alveol/o

alveolus, air sac

51

bronch/o
bronchi/o

bronchial tube
bronchus

52

capn/o

carbon dioxide

53

cyan/o

blue

54

epiglott/o

epiglottis

55

laryng/o

larynx

56

lob/o

lobe of the lung

57

nas/o

nose

58

ox/o

oxygen

59

pharyng/o

pharynx
throat

60

phren/o

diaphragm

61

pleur/o

pleura

62

pneum/o
pneumon/o

air
lung

63

pulmon/o

lung

64

rhin/o

nose

65

sinus/o

sinus
cavity

66

spir/o

breathing

67

tel/o

complete

68

thorac/o

chest

69

trache/o

trachea

70

-ema

condition

71

-pnea

breathing

72

-ptysis

spitting

73

-sphyxia

pulse

74

-thorax

pleural cavity
chest

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