Veterinary Terminology: The Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Vet Prep > Veterinary Terminology: The Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Veterinary Terminology: The Nervous System Deck (77):
0

cerebro-

spinal fluid

1

encephalo-

brain

2

medullo-

medulla

3

myelo-

bone marrow

4

brain

part of the CNS (central nervous system)
responsible for coordinating the activity of all parts of multicellular animals
essential for the co-existence of widely disparate cellular populations
the first organ throughout recorded history that has developed the capacity to study itself

5

the central nervous system (CNS)

consists of the integrative brain, the more primitive brainstem, and the spinal cord
together with peripheral nervous system has a fundamental role in the control of behavior

6

brain protected by

bony skull case and mengines (connective tissue layers)

7

spinal cord protected by

individual, slightly moveable vertebral bones and mengines (connective tissue layers)

8

Mengines 3 connective tissue layers

dura mater
arachnoid mater
pia mater

9

fundamental cellular unit for the nervous system

Neurons

10

neurons

are very metabolically active
have the capacity for generating and propagating an electrical discharge (action potential)
have the means for restoring a resting state and generating another action potential after a short refractory period

11

action potential

generating and propagating an electrical discharge

12

refractory period

the period of time during which a neuron can't re-fire

13

cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)

a special medium that contains nutrients, electrolytes, water, respiratory gases, hormones, and neurotransmitters

14

blood-brain barrier

serves to isolate neurons from the general circulation

15

CSF tap

collecting a sample of CSF to determine whether a breakdown is occuring with the blood-brain barrier

16

neurons consists of three parts

soma- cell body
dendrites
axon

17

soma- cell body

contains organelles that are similar to other cells in the body

18

dendrites

extension from the cell body laden with receptive elements

19

axon

single, long and large process that leaves the cell body to form a synapse with a distant cell or cells

20

synapse

nerve ending

21

sensory (afferent) neurons

are responsible for conveying information about the external or internal environment to or within the CNS

22

thermoreceptors

receptors for temperature

23

chemoreceptors

receptors for chemical irritants

24

mechanoreceptors

receptors for pressure

25

nociceptors

receptors for pain

26

vagus nerve

information from receptors is conveyed to the brain via this nerve

27

motor (efferent) neurons

generate their own action potentials in response to what they receive from the periphery

28

dendritic zone

the action potential is an amalgamation of inputs from many afferent inputs
very large for motor neurons

29

reflex arc

a conversation between the central and peripheral nervous systems occurs by virtue of a receptor to afferent neuron to efferent neuron to effector cell loop

30

neocortex

new brain (population of cells, dendritic zone is immense)

31

cerebral palsy

the population of upper neurons in question become injured or destroyed during birth in human babies

32

spasticity and hyperreflexia

manifestations of the loss of modulatory influences by upper motor neurons on the reflexive responses by the lower motor neurons of the spinal cord.
Movements are very stiff and over-exaggerated

33

cerebrum

main portion of brain

34

cerebration

functional activity of the brain

35

cerbrovascular

pertaining to the blood vessels of the brain

36

cerbellum

refers to a specific portion of the brain devoted to balance, body position, and coordinated movements

37

glia

structural and supportive cells of the CNS
(astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia)

38

Schwann cells

large nucleated cells whose cytoplasm is tightly wound around a segment of axon, encapsulating it and facilitating propagation of an action potential much like insulation around an electrical wire

39

medulla oblongata

the caudal portion of the brain stem where neurons devoted to a variety of vital functions, such as a cardiorespiratory function, peristalsis, food intake (swallowing, chewing, vomition), and hearing

40

ventricular system

internal spaces in the brain where csf is produced and circulates to bathe every neuron from inside to outside

41

subarachnoid space

space between meningeal layers (between dura mater and arachnoid mater) which is external to the substance of the brain and spinal cord that allows CSF to percolate from outside to inside

42

nucleus

A collection of neurons of like function that reside in the CNS

43

ganglion

A collection of neurons of like function that reside outside the CNS

44

cerebromalacia

abnormal softening of the brain

45

encephalopathy

any abnormality of the brain

46

hydrocephaly

an abnormal accumulation of CSF in the brain
(water on the brain)

47

encephalopathy

parasitic migration of the larval stage of the genus (Encephalitozoon.) Resulting in ischemic lesions secondary to disruption of key cerebral vessels, results in cerebral signs and major behavior changes

48

cerebrodysplasia

any congenital anomaly of the brain

49

Schwannoma

a tumor of the Schwann cell sheath
aka neurofibroma

50

neuropharmacologic

adverse drug reaction that present with cerebral signs

51

astrocytoma

a tumor composed of astrocytes.
most common form of primary brain tumor and can arise anywhere in the CNS

52

ataxia

A failure of muscle coordination that often manifests as a very abnormal gait

53

neuropathy

a functional abnormality or pathologic change in the peripheral nervous system

54

neuromyopathy

A muscle disorder resulting from a loss of or abnormal nerve inputs

55

neuroprotective

guarding or protecting against neurotoxicity

56

myelodysplasia

abnormal formation of the spinal cord

57

demyelination

loss of the myelin sheath provided by Schwann cells, resulting in reduced or disorganized propagation of action potentials

58

Somnolence

sleepiness or reduction in sensorium (level of consciousness) that, in worsening condition can be followed by coma, which is an absence of conciousness

59

space occupying lesion

an abnormal mass somewhere in the nervous system that compresses delicate nervous tissure. The mass could be a tumor, an abscess, or an enlarged normal structure

60

encephalomyelitis

inflammation f the brain and spinal cord. the causative agents can be viral, bacterial, Rickettsial, fungal, or parasitic.

61

theco

sheath

62

meningo

meninges

63

myo

muscle

64

esthesia

perception
sensitivity

65

algia

pain
painful condition

66

plegia

paralysis

67

paresis

slight or incomplete paralysis

68

taxo

order
coordination

69

nervous system problems

seizures
blindness
deafness
dementia
tremors
head-tilts
nystagmus
paresis
paralysis
pain

70

neuro exam

mental status
cranial nerve reflexes
gait and posture
proprioceptive positioning
spinal reflexes
pain perception

71

states of consciousness

somnolent
lethargic
stuporous
comatose

72

thalamocortex

behavior or intelligence
Animal unable to relate normally with its environment

73

Epilepsy

seizure disorder-recurrent
status epilepticus- last longer than 5-10 minutes
cluster seizures- 2 or more over a brief period of time

74

Wobbler's syndrome

cervical vertebral abnormalities

75

radiculo

radicle

76

neuro

nerves

Decks in Vet Prep Class (47):