Flashcards in Viniculture/Viticulture Deck (38):
What are the 8 common categories of viticulture?
7. Disease control
8. Monitoring the development of the vinyard
When does budbreak start?
What is veraison?
When the grapes soften and start to change color.
What does vendage mean?
What is the ideal temperature range for grapes to grow?
70 degrees for ripening
What is the minimum amount of sunshine required to support viticulture?
What is the required amount of rainfall annually in order to produce adequate crop?
20-30 inches of rainfall
What happens if the vine has too much rain?
It can dilute the flavor of the wine and quality as well as fungal disease.
What is terrior?
The complete system of the living vine.
What is macroclimate?
What is mesoclimate?
The climate particular to the vinyard
What is Microclimate?
The climate in and around the vine canopy
What is mass selection or selection massale?
When the grower selects videos for replanting from a number of vines throughout the vinyard rather than a single clone.
What is virus ripara?
American rootstock that is phylloxera resistant
What is cordon training?
When the vine has at least one permanent cane that extends from the trunk called an arm or cordon.
What is head training?
When the vine has no permanent cordon and the trunk ends up in a knob.
What is the guyot system?
Vertical trellises on which canes can be suspended.
What are three fungal diseases?
Powdery mildew, Downey mildew, eutypa dieback
What is one fungal disease that can not be treated?
Esca or black measles. It weakens growth and development and it's a wood rotting fungus.
What are three bacterial diseases
Pierces disease, bacterial blight, crown gall (black knot).
What are two viral diseases
Leafroll virus and fanleaf degeneration.
What is chaptalization?
Addition of sugar to grape must to increase alcohol and glycerin content.
What is battonage?
Stirring of the lees during fermentation
What does barrel fermentation bring to winemaking?
It lacks temperature control but can lead to more expression of color and oak.
What is reverse osmosis?
It's a procedure that separates the wine into two parts (permeate) and (retendate). The permeate is distilled before recombined with the wines aromatic compounds.
What is acidification?
The addition of acid to grape must to balance wines.
What is malolactic fermentation?
Naturally occurring secondary fermentation in which lactic acid bacteria convert harsh malic acid into soft lactic acid and Carbon dioxide.
What is carbonic maceration?
Alcoholic fermentation used for some red wines wherein whole uncrushed grapes under a blanket of CO2 initiate intercellular fermentation
What is cold soak?
Prefermentation maceration technique that relies on substantial SO2 additions and a cold temperature. this leads to a grater ratio of skins to juice for more extraction.
What is pigeage
What is remontage?
What is destelage
What is elevage?
Why do winemakers use oak?
Allows gentle slow oxidation rounding out and softening the texture of the wine.
What does American oak factor into winemaking?
It is less porous but releases more vanillin and lactones resulting in a coconut factor
What does 100% organic wine not contain?
What is viticulture?
The study of grape growing slowly developed in conjuction with the cultivation of wine.