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Flashcards in Viruses and Prions Deck (161)
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91

What is a Tzanck test?

a smear of an opened skin vesicle to detect multinucleated giant cells (seen in HSV-1, HSV-2, VSV)

92

What is the major reservoir for small pox virus?

no reservoir known since eradication in 1979, except lab samples

93

What lab findings are useful to help diagnose hepatitis A? (3)

serum IgM rises in early stage; serum IgG levels rise and remain elevated for life; serum liver enzymes dramatically elevated.

94

HIV infected patients become symptomatic _____ years after exposure.

3-10 years

95

Prions: multiple choice: Prions are
a) infectious proteins only
b) infectious RNA
c) infectious DNA
d) infectious proteins occasionally mixed with nucleic acids

a) infectious proteins

96

How do you test for mononucleosis?

heterophil antibody test (aka 'monospot')

97

Name the diseases caused by VZV. (3)

varicella-zoster (shingles), encephalitis, pneumonia

98

What is the mode of transmission for hepatitis C?

blood (IV drug users)

99

What structural similarity is shared by herpesviruses, HBV, and smallpox virus?

they are DNA enveloped viruses

100

Rabies is caused by which viral family?

rhabdoviruses

101

Name three naked DNA viruses (no envelope).

parvo, adeno, and papilloma

102

HIV is diagnosed by _____ and confirmed with _______.

ELISA; western blot

103

What are the clinical manifestations of hepatitis C? (5)

chronic hepatitis-nausea, malaise, fever, arthralgia, fatigue, tendency for only 25% to develop jaundice

104

How is measles virus (rubeola) transmitted?

respiratory droplets

105

How is rotavirus transmitted?

fecal-oral route

106

Which single stranded linear DNA virus is responsible for slapped cheeks rash in children?

parvovirus

107

Recent hepatitis B infection. Which Ab would display positive serology?

HBsAb and HBcAb (positive during window period)

108

Name the routes of transmission for EBV. (2)

respiratory secretions. saliva

109

What are the clinical manifestations of cytomegalovirus? (3)

cytomegalic inclusion disease-congenital abnormalities, liver and brain damage, abortion, still births. Infection may be assymptomatic. CMV mononucleosis, CMV hepatitis-acute fever with signs of hepatitis

110

Describe the clinical presentation of human herpes virus-6 infection. (4)

roseola infantum-(ages 6 months to 4 years) sudden high fever (seizures rare) followed by faint macular rash 3-5 days later with slapped cheek appearance. Self limiting.

111

What lab findings are useful to help diagnose human papilloma virus?

diagnosis is clinical, but pap smears used to monitor changes to cervix.

112

What is the morphology of advenovirus?

dNA non-enveloped virus with Icosahedral nucleocapsid

113

RNA viruses: Which single stranded linear, nonsegmented RNA virus family is responsible for measles, mumps, and croup?

paramyxovirus

114

Describe the clinical course of hepatitis infection. (3)

acute hepatitis-3-4 weeks incubation followed by fever, nausea, jaundice dark urine and clay coloured not become a chronic carrier

115

What is the morphology of molluscipoxvirus?

large DNA virus, enveloped

116

How is rabies virus transmitted?

bite from any infected animal (bats more common than dogs)

117

Name the routes of transmission for HSV-1. (2)

respiratory secretions and saliva

118

What is the morphology of prions?

non viral glycoprotein 5nm in diameter

119

Describe the clinical course of measles. (6)

measles-7-14 day incubation followed by cough, coryza, conjunctivitis for 2-4 days followed by Koplik's spots (bright red lesions with white centre), followed by maculopapular rash with photophobia, pruritis

120

Identify the major virulence factor associated with Varicella zoster.

virus may become latent in dorsal root ganglia.