Flashcards in Viruses and Prions Deck (161)
What is a Tzanck test?
a smear of an opened skin vesicle to detect multinucleated giant cells (seen in HSV-1, HSV-2, VSV)
What is the major reservoir for small pox virus?
no reservoir known since eradication in 1979, except lab samples
What lab findings are useful to help diagnose hepatitis A? (3)
serum IgM rises in early stage; serum IgG levels rise and remain elevated for life; serum liver enzymes dramatically elevated.
HIV infected patients become symptomatic _____ years after exposure.
Prions: multiple choice: Prions are
a) infectious proteins only
b) infectious RNA
c) infectious DNA
d) infectious proteins occasionally mixed with nucleic acids
a) infectious proteins
How do you test for mononucleosis?
heterophil antibody test (aka 'monospot')
Name the diseases caused by VZV. (3)
varicella-zoster (shingles), encephalitis, pneumonia
What is the mode of transmission for hepatitis C?
blood (IV drug users)
What structural similarity is shared by herpesviruses, HBV, and smallpox virus?
they are DNA enveloped viruses
Rabies is caused by which viral family?
Name three naked DNA viruses (no envelope).
parvo, adeno, and papilloma
HIV is diagnosed by _____ and confirmed with _______.
ELISA; western blot
What are the clinical manifestations of hepatitis C? (5)
chronic hepatitis-nausea, malaise, fever, arthralgia, fatigue, tendency for only 25% to develop jaundice
How is measles virus (rubeola) transmitted?
How is rotavirus transmitted?
Which single stranded linear DNA virus is responsible for slapped cheeks rash in children?
Recent hepatitis B infection. Which Ab would display positive serology?
HBsAb and HBcAb (positive during window period)
Name the routes of transmission for EBV. (2)
respiratory secretions. saliva
What are the clinical manifestations of cytomegalovirus? (3)
cytomegalic inclusion disease-congenital abnormalities, liver and brain damage, abortion, still births. Infection may be assymptomatic. CMV mononucleosis, CMV hepatitis-acute fever with signs of hepatitis
Describe the clinical presentation of human herpes virus-6 infection. (4)
roseola infantum-(ages 6 months to 4 years) sudden high fever (seizures rare) followed by faint macular rash 3-5 days later with slapped cheek appearance. Self limiting.
What lab findings are useful to help diagnose human papilloma virus?
diagnosis is clinical, but pap smears used to monitor changes to cervix.
What is the morphology of advenovirus?
dNA non-enveloped virus with Icosahedral nucleocapsid
RNA viruses: Which single stranded linear, nonsegmented RNA virus family is responsible for measles, mumps, and croup?
Describe the clinical course of hepatitis infection. (3)
acute hepatitis-3-4 weeks incubation followed by fever, nausea, jaundice dark urine and clay coloured not become a chronic carrier
What is the morphology of molluscipoxvirus?
large DNA virus, enveloped
How is rabies virus transmitted?
bite from any infected animal (bats more common than dogs)
Name the routes of transmission for HSV-1. (2)
respiratory secretions and saliva
What is the morphology of prions?
non viral glycoprotein 5nm in diameter
Describe the clinical course of measles. (6)
measles-7-14 day incubation followed by cough, coryza, conjunctivitis for 2-4 days followed by Koplik's spots (bright red lesions with white centre), followed by maculopapular rash with photophobia, pruritis