Flashcards in Vitamins and Physiotherapy (Irene Gold) Parts II and III Deck (142):
A deficiency in which vitamin will cause night blindness?
Vitamin A (Retinol)
What is the name for Vitamin A?
What condition will an increase in Vitamin A cause?
Hypervitaminosis: beta-caratinema (yellow skin with normal sclera)
What is the name for Vitamin B1?
What condition is caused by a decrease in Thiamine?
What are two findings with Beri-Beri syndrome?
What condition is seen in alcoholics that have a decrease in Vitamin B1?
Wernike Kosakoff syndrome
What vitamin is called Riboflavin?
What is the name of the condition seen in a person with a decrease in Vitamin B2?
Cheilosis (Sore cracks at the corner of the mouth)
What is the name for Vitamin B3?
What condition is seen in patients with a decrease in Niacin?
4 D's: Dementia, Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Death
What is the name for Vitamin B6?
For what condition is Pyridoxine recommended?
Peripheral nerve healing
What four conditions is Vitamin B6 used to help?
When is Vitamin B9 recommended to be taken and for what purpose?
Prior to pregnancy
To help with formation of the neural arch;neural tube defects are less likely to occur
What is the name for Vitamin B9?
What type of anemia is seen in alcoholics with a Folic Acid deficiency?
Megoloblastic (Macrocyic) Anemia
What does a deficiency in B9 produce?
Pain in what location of the body will improve at night when taking B9?
What Vitamin has the name Cobalamin?
What population will be deficient in B12?
A lack of intrinsic factor with Cobalamin leads to what type of Anemia?
A deficiency of B12 leads to Megaloblastic anemia which is confirmed positive how?
Positive Schilling test
What Vitamin is associated with Posterolateral Sclerosis (Combined Systems Disease)?
What two systems are often part of Combined System Disease (PLS)?
What Vitamin masks the symptoms of B12?
Folic Acid (B9)
What conditions will persist even after Cobalamin is administered?
What is the name for Vitamin C?
What two conditions will be seen if a patient has a decrease in Ascorbic Acid?
In what population should you supplement Vitamin C, because of a deficiency?
What is one function of Ascorbic Acid?
Healing of connective tissue
Vitamin C helps with the absorption of what mineral?
When should you avoid the intake/supplementation of Vitamin C?
When kidney stones are present
What condition can arise if there is an excessive amount of Ascorbic Acid consumed?
What condition will be seen with a deficiency in Vitamin D?
Bone Softening called:
What are two very good sources of Vitamin D?
Fish liver oil (Best source)
What two signs will be present in a patient with a decrease in Vitamin D?
Rachitic Rosary near Sternum
What will an increase of a Vitamin D do?
Increase bone density
What is the name of the x-ray finding in patients with a decrease of Vitamin D?
Paint brush metaphysis
In what climate will you see a deficiency in Vitamin D?
In cooler climates
What is the name for Vitamin E?
What Vitamin is an antioxidant for the cardiovascular system?
Where is Vitamin K made?
What is the major function of Vitamin K?
How is Vitamin K destroyed in the body?
What is a contraindication with Vitamin K deficiency?
What amino acid is increased in Coronary/ Cardiovascular disease?
What is used to treat hypercholesterolemia, natural anti inflammatory?
Omega 3 Fatty Acids
What three things will Zinc help with?
Immune system health
A toxic does of what mineral will do damage to hair, nails and skin?
What mineral is essential for diabetics and is a glucose tolerance factor?
What is the number one mineral deficiency in the world?
What mineral is the most deficient in the United States?
What is the name of a cancer specialist?
What specialist is similar to a General Practitioner?
What is the focus of a Gastroenterologist?
Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction
i.e. Stomach and Gallbladder
If a patient has a kidney issue, who is the appropriate referral to?
What specialist takes care of glandular problems, i.e. Diabetes Mellitus?
What does a Urologist focus on?
Genitourinary (GU) tract
What is the name of the specialist that takes care of heart conditions?
What conditions will often be cared for by a Neurologist?
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
What age is seen by a Pediatrician?
Newborn up to 14 years of age
What are the three essential fatty acids?
Linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid)
Linoleic acid (omega-6 fatty acid)
If there is an increase in dietary protein what else must be increased?
What are the time frames for the following:
Acute: 24-48 hours
Subacute: 48-72 hours
Chronic: 72+ hours
What are the indications of massage?
What are the contraindications of massage?
Vascular problems i.e. Blood clots
What is the name of the modality used to break up adhesions?
What is one condition that you would use Friction/ Transverse massage?
When would Trigger Point Therapy be indicated for use?
What is the maximum time you should perform Trigger Point Therapy at one location?
What is the purpose of Trigger Point Therapy?
To elongate contracted bands of muscle fibers
What two modalities can be done to each myofascial pain problem?
Trigger Point Therapy
Spray and Stretch
What are four indications to carry out Traction?
Intervertebral Foramen (IVF) encroachment
Chronic muscle spasm
Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD)
What are three contraindicates of doing Traction?
Bone weak/Inhibitedening conditions
What is the indication to use Cryotherapy?
How long should Cryotherapy be used for?
What mnemonic is often used with the Cryotherapy modality?
What are the four contraindicates to Cryotherapy?
Hypersensitivity to cold
What are the three indications to use Infrared?
Chronic musculoskeletal conditions
What are three contraindicates to Infrared therapy?
Abnormal thermal sensation
When is it appropriate to use Ultraviolet light therapy?
Skin and bone conditions (i.e. Infection)
What are two contraindicates to Ultraviolet therapy?
What three effects does Ultraviolet therapy have?
What is another name for Diathermy?
Heat; Short wave and Microwave
What are three indications to use Diathermy?
Deep chronic musculoskeletal conditions
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
What are three contraindicates of Diathermy?
When is pulsed ultrasound used?
During the acute phase
When is continuous ultrasound used?
Subacute and Chronic phases
What are the three indications to where you would use ultrasound?
What are three contraindicates of ultrasound?
What four effects does Ultrasound have?
Thermal (Continuous only)
When would you perform ultrasound underwater?
What mode of ultrasound is used for an acute condition?
In an acute condition what setting is the ultrasound set on for Thin Tissue?
What ultrasound setting would be appropriate for a setting of 1.0-1.5 w/cm^2?
Thick Tissue of an Acute condition
What mode is the ultrasound set on for a Chronic condition?
What setting is the ultrasound set on for Thin Tissue in a Chronic condition?
What is the setting on the ultrasound for an area of Thick Tissue in a Chronic Condition?
What is the rule for conducting Ultrasound underwater?
Add 0.5 w/cm^2
What helps to drive ions into the tissue when using Ultrasound?
When would you use Low-Volt Galvanic?
What four conditions would you use High Volt Galvanic?
Decrease muscle spasm
To exercise the muscle
What is the purpose for a TENS unit?
What three reasons would you use Faradic/Sine wave therapy?
Stretch fibrotic tissue
Increase lymph flow
What modality produces less heat?
What are four uses for Interferential therapy?
Break muscle spasms
Exercise the muscle
What modality has a penetration twice as deep as High Volt Galvanic?
What is another name for a Trochanteric Belt?
What two populations can benefit from a Trochanteric Belt?
Pregnant women (Lax SI joints, after pregnancy)
Patients with Osteitis Condensans Ilii (OCI)
What kind of muscle contraction would you instruct a patient in a cast to do? This will prevent atrophy
Isometric muscle contraction
What term is described as " Muscular contraction in which tension is developed but the muscle does not change in length"?
Isometric muscle contraction
When is an Isometric muscle contraction most often used?
Initial treatment of an injury
What is an Isotonic muscle contraction?
Muscle contraction when there is a change in the muscle length
In an Isotonic muscle contraction the joint movement and the exercise are performed with ___________?
Constant Resistance/Same weight
What is a Concentric Isotonic Muscle Contraction?
Shortened Contraction (+ work)
What is it called when there is Negative (-) work or and lengthening contraction?
Eccentric Isotonic Muscle Contraction
What is the term used for "Muscular contraction with a change in length and a constantly changing resistance performed at a constant speed through the full range of motion"?
Isokinetic Muscle contraction
What exercises are done for peripheral vascular disease?
What condition is reduced by performing William's Flexion exercises?
What are three example of William's Flexion exercises?
What exercises are done to help increase lumbar lordosis and rehab a disc?
McKenzie's Extension Exercises
What exercises include "finger tip wall walking" and "pendular exercises"?
What condition does Codman's Exercises help with?
What exercise is instructed to postpartum women and men with incontinence?
What is the name of the exercise that provides Feedback?
What is the name of the exercises for knee rehab?
What are Frenkel's Exercises?
Uses a Wobble Board
What is the name of the exercises used in patterning and helping patients with Cerebral Palsy (CP)?
What is the name for Ballistic exercises?
What is an example of an Open chain exercise?
What is the definition of an Open Chain Exercise?
Exercise where the hand/foot is free to move
What is the name of the exercise that has a fixed/does not allow the hand/foot to move freely?
Closed chain exercise
What is an example of a closed chain exercise?
What is the name of the brace to help with Osgood-Schlatter disease?
What is another name for Osgood-Schlatter disease?
What muscles are Weak/Inhibited in Upper Cross Syndrome?
Deep neck Flexors (i.e. Longus Coli and Longus Capitus)
What muscles are Tight/Facilitated in Upper Cross Syndrome?
Superficial neck Flexors (i.e. Scalenes and Sternocleidomastoid (SCM))
What three muscles are Weak/Inhibited in Lower Cross Syndrome?
Abdominal (Transverse Abdominal)
What three muscles are Tight/Facilitated in Lower Cross Syndrome?
What two supplements should a patient with Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD) be taking?