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Flashcards in Voter Participation Deck (47):

What are the two key reasons why young people do not vote?

1) Life cycle effect
2) Generational affect


What is the life cycle effect?

As people grow older their attitudes and behaviours may change due to changing circumstances such as education, marriage, employment, and retirement
-as they get older, they come to the polls.


What is the generational effect?

the effect on attitudes and behaviour of the views of different generations that persist throughout the life cycle


Why is a concern that millennials as a group haven't conformed to the life-cycle effect?

-may affect policies and political parties
-doesn't encourage future generation (you are more likely to vote if your family does)
-a smaller and smaller group is electing the government*


What are the reasons for the life-cycle effect?

-materially you are dependent on your families
-less educated
-more attached to a country and community as you get older
-have more at stake as you get older (property, family, responsibilities)


The generational effect has severe___and___consequences as___and___have an impact on who governs all of us.



In the 2000 Federal Election___of those 18 to 24 voted.
Overal turnout___
Turnout for those over 58 years was above___.



Why do many retired people vote?

-Economic (social and healthcare)
-Political parties catered to them
-Generation who had a unique set of experiences (wars, civic duty, went overseas and fought for the very values and ideals, understanding of voting)


In the 2004 Federal election, __of those 18-24 cast a ballot; overall turnout was___. What was unique about this election?

-People were tired of minority government --> they had had enough.


In the 2006 Federal election, the youth vote was___; total turnout was___.



In the 2008 Federal election, the youth vote was___; total turnout was___. What was unique?

-lowest in history


In the 2011 election, total turnout was__; youth vote___; 25-34 vote__.



In the 2015 Federal election, total turnout was___; you___; 25-34___.



What are the 5 reasons for low young voter turnout in Canada?

1) Political cynicism
2) Lack of political knowledge
3) A weaker sense of civic duty than older citizens
4) Limited contact with political parties and candidates
5) Too busy, registration problems, illness,moving, lack of knowledge about when or where to vote


What factors might contribute to cynicism? What were the youth satisfied with?

-More recent data suffuses that attitudinal factors seem less important
-There were reasonable high levels of satisfaction among the youth surveys with the way democracy works in Canada, with 53% of youth being somewhat satisfied and a further 17% very satisfied.


Why are many youth cynical?

-Politicians are in it for themselves
-Representatives are self-interested
-Duties and obligations not to citizens
-Don't keep promises


How can a lack of political knowledge be addressed?

Take incentive and act to overcome lack of knowledge individually
-Requires effort
-Be aware of persuasive knowledge of tweets, ads, etc.
-Maybe educational institutions need to equip people --> a civics class that teaches ideologies, values, and attitudes to prepare you to be a citizen in a basic, elementary way.
-More and more political parties are aware of social media
-Should your family play a role? Is it up to your parents?


Is it possible to mitigate the fact that the youth feel a weaker sense of civic duty than older citizens?

-Less exposure to historical experiences
-Not so concerned about material welfare
-Military obligation instilled civic duty (fought or worked in war effort)


What is the problem with limited contact with political parties and candidates?

-Young people acknowledge that political parties aren't doing it for them.
-In the past they were after our parents, but millennials are the next wave to bear the burden of electing governments
-Problem is these parties
-Institutions are formal, organized, and closed
-Argument is that they are equivalent of oligarchies
-Slow moving with change and transformation
-Bound by processes and rules


How can you fix that fact that the youth have limited contact with political parties and candidates?

A platform that appeals to millennials, such as a social media platform.


Is it possible to overcome the problems of being too busy, having registration problems, illness, moving, lack of knowledge about when or where to vote?

-Some of them may be overcome
-We are mobile, we have social media and technology, we can probably figure it out.


Besides the youth, what else is political participation linked to ?

-indicators of social class such as income
-marital status more like to vote
-various individual political attitudes


Are there differences between men and women who participated in politics in advanced democracies?

Quite small or non-existent.


What is the most obvious type of political participation?

Only a small proportion of the public is actively involved in politics through working for a party or candidate during an election.


Has membership in political parties been inclining or declining in many countries?



What type of citizen involvement has been increasing?

Citizen involvement in a wide variety of issue-oriented public interest groups


What does an active citizen look like?

-Mobilizing others
-Educating yourself
-being informed
-staying up to date
-react to particular interests or developments
-volunteerism** --> engagement in aspects of your community


How is volunteerism related to a democratic society?

-Outcomes that look to the betterment of the community
-Civil society critical to the health of a democracy
-connected to others in community
-concern that extends to others


What may the active citizen do?

They may do self-interested things but they generate social ties that move into the community


How do you benefit as an active citizen?

In terms of human development


What to you recognize as an active citizen?

Begin to recognize that there are other equally important values out there (we are all in this together)


What do active citizens enable?

-better community
-common good


What is the civil society seen as?

a space within the state


What is civil society?

A space where we are enabled, practice civil and political rights that set in place relationship between us and the state. Associate, speak, access to info, challenge public authority.


Why is the civil society integral to democratic politics (2 reason)?

1) activate your rights (become autonomous)
2) buffer (act out and act upon the state, way to limit government, question public officials)


In a civil society, __operate, ___established.



What is the civil society an indicator of?

the health of democracy


What have concerns been expressed about despite the increase in some types of political participation?

about th apparent decline of citizen involvement in the organizational life of communities.


what does Putnam believe about a well-functioning democracy?

Requires not only a political active citizenry and a particular set of political institutions, but also a society and a political culture that foster trust and co-operation.


What is reciprocity?

-basic level of trust and understanding
-long-erm relationship strengthens


What is what happens in a civil society important?

because of the ideas and values of trust that is established.


How do millennials still engage in the community?

Volunteering (which is important because it goes on all the time).


What is social capital?

connections among individuals
-recognize that others have needs and interests


What does Robert Putnam believe about social capital?

the more created, the better for the community


What is social capital tied to?

civic virtue


What is civic virtue?

-taking virtue in community
-community is virtuous
-virtue in participating for the benefit of all
-action directed at community is a virtue
-projecting yourself into the lives of others


What is the difference between social capital and civic virtue? How?

Social capital calls attention to the fact that civic virtue is powerful most when embedded in a sense network of reciprocal social relations.
-How? Participating.