Flashcards in Chapter 2- Lecture Deck (78):
What is the state?
the state is an independent self-governing political community whose governing institutions have the capability to make rules that are binding on the population within a particular territory.
What is the difference between the state and government?
Government is a set of institutions (including politicians) that makes and oversees the implementation on behalf of the state for a particular time.
What are the three main characteristics of the state? Explain each.
1) It involves territorial boundaries- states have borders, beyond their legal authority is either nil or strictly limited.
2) The state consists of a complex set of institutions that wield public authority- the courts, police, and the educational system are no less outposts of the states authority than are the elected legislature and bureaucracy (why it remains powerful)
3) The state is defined in terms of power- acc. to Weber it is defined by "its monopoly of legitimate use of physical force in the enforcement of its order".
Expand a bit of the third characteristic of the state (the state is defined in terms of power). What does each gov't acknowledge about other governments? What are they means? What do they acknowledge about other the state?
-every gov't acknowledges the sovereignty of other governments
-exclusive power of gov't
-the means to exercise and utilize violence
-acknowledge that the state is about concentrating power and authority
What is the State acc. to Mintz?
An independent, self governing political community whose governing institutions have the capacity to make rules that are binding on the population residing within a particular territory.
What is reciprocity?
Globally, the system doesn't change.
What is sovereignty?
sovereignty is a legal and actual conclusion whereby states recognize no higher authority either domestically or externally and are thus free to act as they wish.
Are all states equal?
Given they are sovereign states, are equal in legal terms. Comparatively, with resources and how they manage on a global level, all states are different.
What is the resource necessary for governments to exercise sovereignty?
Making laws (ensures because they are sovereign and they have the ability to make and enforce those laws).
Why is it hard for governments to maintain sovereignty?
because of technology
What are two critical principles reinforcing sovereignty?
Non-interference- based on reciprocity. aCcept and pledge this as you enter into gov't relationships. Acknowledge domestic affairs of gov't in their territory and their sovereignty. Ensures authority can be exercised.
Territory Integrity- marked and recognized borders that establish a marker where your power and authority begins and ends to you and other gov't. What happens beyond those borders? Who is in charge?
Combined, these two principles solidify what sovereignty is and how it works.
What is sovereignty acc. to Mintz? What comes first and second?
First, states claim to be the highest authority for their population and their territory. Second, states are not subject to any external authority, but rather are able to act independently in the world.
-citizens expect gov't to represent the interest of their people, at least symbolically.
What are modern states referred to as? Why?
Nation-states, in that they are sovereign states based on people living in a country who share a sense of being member of a particular nation.
In reality, are many states based on a single nation?
Many nations states are created through___ ___.
Is Canada a nation-state?
Remains a contentious issue for some groups
What do states play a fundamental role in?
socializing citizens and groups.
-how we see ourselves
What are objective features of a nation?
(territory, language, culture). You can point to them
What are subjective features of a nation?
You take some of these ideas of what it means to be something (part of a country, for example), and think of them. How do you share fundamental values of who we are, what we stand for, with others? How did those values come to be?
Ex. what does it mean to be Canadian?
Think: Who you are today as a Canadians may ___be who you are___years from now as a Canadian. Why?
-because the gov't tries to shape who we are, but the community does that too.
What is a necessity for any nation state?
What is a requirement for every nation state?
common code of values
Why will our view of ourselves as Canadians change in twenty years?
In a system like ours, creating more diverse populations challenges what we view and share--which is what the nation is. This is why our view of ourselves will change.
There are a number of countries where a great number of people view themselves as having a different___identity.
What is a national identity?
A common identity can be based on common characteristics such as ethnicity, language, culture, and religion (objective features)
What is nationalism based on?
is based on a view that the nation-state is the best for of political community and that a nation should have its own self-governing state.
What is self determination?
a nation should have its own self governing state.
What are the two types of nationalism? Explain.
Ethnic nationalism-views common ancestry along with common cultural traditions and language associated with a particular group as the basis for a nationstate
Civic nationalism- shared political values and political history as the basis for the nation state.
What type of nationalism is Canada?
civic nationalism (though there are arguments that Canada is both).
What does Canada, as a civic nation, have an understanding of?
liberal democratic politics
What should we think of the civic nation as crafting?
an identity in a group that is ethnically diverse, such as having shared values.
Think: Is the civic nation enough to have a common identity, establishing social solidarity?
Some say the ties that hold the nation together are too weak.
What is multiculturalism?
Instead of encouraging or persuading different cultural, ethnic, and linguistic groups to give up their distinctiveness and assimilate into the dominant group.
What is the value in multiculturalism?
allows the ability to thrive as an individual.
How is multiculturalism dangerous?
because what happens if you don't belong to that range of groups in a country? Multiculturalism operates in a society that is still not fully inclusive?
What is the challenge we face in a liberal democracy in regards to multiculturalism?
Is a difference of identity while sustaining our values.
What is citizenship?
connected to development of modern nation-state is the idea of citizenship--that a country's permanent residents are full members of the political community with certain duties and rights.
Right to___is critical in citizenship?
In whose interests and on whose behalf is the state's authority exercised?
-depends on perspective in analyzing the state
-why state is contested
What did the state begin with? How?
-Use imperialism to draw resources for growth
What did Max Weber believe about the state?
the state is that institution which successfully upholds a claim of the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force in the enforcement of its order.
What did Karl Marx believe about the state?
The execution the modern state is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the bourgeoise.
Why was Marx important with the state?
because he saw the state as a product of economic transformation
-capitalism important economic model and sustained by a political culture
-how state created legal means and cultural ideas.
What does Jill Vicers believe about the state?
All state-based political systems are patriarchal--that is, in no country the world are women equal participants in the institutions of the state or equal beneficiaries in its distribution of power or in the norms and values sanction in laws and enforced by those institutions.
How does feminism in a critical perspective really regard the state?
-gender codes, norms
-those in positions of power were male
-role of women has been restricted --> politics less than equal
-feminist perspective useful to take a criticalperspectife of the state in terms of equality
What are the three models or approaches to the state?
2) class analysis
What does pluralism reflect?
Reflects the face that our social-political economic world is shaped by the environment which we come from
What does pluralism assume?
That politics is fundamentally a competition between different interests
What does the state respond to in pluralism?
chiefly to the demands of those groups that are best organized, have superior financial resources, can credibly speak on behalf of large numbers of voters or segments of the population that are influential for other reasons, and are successful in associating their interests with the general interest in society.
When did pluralism come about?
late 1950s and 1960s
Why join a group? What does this allow?
-a group allows individuals to aggregate (competition for resources)
What kind of resources matter in a society like ours? Is their one resource that we absolutely need?
Money --> capital (allows you to advertise, slander, persuade) --> can be used for a range of different things.
Describe the sports analogy with pluralism.
For pluralists, the state is akin to the venue (the arena), provides the officials that referred the game.
-The state is a natural actor in all of this. Liberal Democratic state, no interest in outcomes but maintaining an environment where the game can be played acc. to the rules.
True or False: The state is neutral.
Beyond being stable, pluralists enable___, protect individual___from an overbearing government.
What happens if groups aren't present in society?
then public authority has no means to be accountable
The Liberal would say that what happens in groups is fundamental to you as an___.
___captures America quite well.
Do pluralists say think that one group will win all the time?
no, they say that there is a chance that any group could win
What is the state seen as in a class analysis approach?
The state in capitalist societies is seen as an instrument through which the small minorities who control most of a society's wealth maintain their social and economic dominance.
Is the state neutral in a class analysis approach?
Given this approach, the state and its complex of institutions is far from neutral but indicative of a specific class interest.
What is the simple premise of class analysis?
If it's a state, the institutions are important to maintaining the dominant class and the interests of the bourgeoise.
What is the dominant way in which we exchange good?
Capitalism and global capitalism
Class analysis allows us to think that in a Liberal Democratic system, does the__matter? Is it relevant to our day to day existence?
Do those who have capital have greater power in society? If they do, what does this question?
the democratic system
-we may be equal in a political sense, but not in an economic sense
What is the relevance of the class analysis approach?
That material wealth matters in our society
-big business and transnational corporations are influential
-leads to critical inquiry about question and making those in public authority accountable (circle of elites).
What is the state viewed as in the feminist approach?
an inherently general patriarchal system
-there are codes and norms reflected in gender bias in society
Feminist approach: gender is___to our identity, makes us___.
What are gender codes?
social roles one plays as a male and a female
Feminists assert that the state in its design goes___women.
What is a patriarchal society?
men hold and maintain positions power in society.
What is biological determinism?
women's biological makeup determined their social and political opportunities.
Gender shaped and limited women's opportunities in a ___ ___.
How can we change what it means to be male or female?
How one raises their children --> what you son/daughter can and can't do. Starts from the bottom up.
If family is essential, why shouldn't male and females have equal opportunity?
feminism is systemic--part of our legal and political system --> legacy of the institution.
What do the three perspectives give us an idea of?
In whose interests does the state rule.
What doe we get an idea of with the three perspectives?
what matters in our lives politically and socially