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Flashcards in Chapter 3- Textbook Deck (33):

What is a political ideology?

A package of interrelated ideas and beliefs about government, society, the economy, and human nature that affect political action. Each ideology provides a different perspective that is used to understand and evaluate how the world actually works. Most ideologies also provide a vision of what the world should be like and propose a means of political action to achieve their objectives.


What is the negative side of ideology?

-Extremist perspectives
-Some act as if their ideologies are absolute truths and refuse to consider criticism of their perspective --> resemble religions.


What is the positive side of ideology?

An ideology can provide some coherence, consistency, and direction to a person's political thinking. They provide us with different ideas about the common good and how they may be achieved.


Do political parties with ideological names always reflect that ideology?

They do not necessarily reflect that ideology as they are often founded on a set of ideological principles hat may be ignored or modified for electoral success.


What does the "left" mean?

The general ideological position associated with advocacy of greater social and economic equality, laws based universal human rights rather than traditional morality, and opposition to state support for religious institutions.


What does the "right" mean?

The general ideological position associated with opposition to imposing greater social and economic equality and with maintaining traditional (usually religious-based) moral values and institutions.


In Short:

Right: traditional morality and elite authority
Left: equality and human rights


What does liberalism emphasize?

the desirability for a high level of individual freedom based n the idea of he worth and dignity of the individual. Limited government interference.


What is the rule of law?

The idea that people should be subject to know, predictable, and impartial rules of conduct rather than to the arbitrary orders of particular individuals. Both the rules and rulers should be equal subject to the law.


What is a liberal democracy?

A political system that combines the liberal ideas of limited government, individual freedom, and the rule of law with a democratic system of government based on the election of representatives.


What is classical liberalism?

A form of liberalism that emphasizes the desirability of limited gov't and the free marketplace


What do classical liberals believe is the proper economic role of gov't?

Is only to protect property, prevent fraud, and impartially settle disputes.


What is reform liberalism?

A version of liberalism that combines support for individual freedom with a belief that gov't action may be needed to help remove obstacles to individual development.


Why did reform liberalism develop?

As liberal became concerned that the laissez-faire system established no to little help to develop the capabilities of workers and disadvantaged sectors of society.


Why do reform liberals believe gov't interference is needed?

to ensure an equal right to freedom


What do net-liberals believe?

a perspective based on a strong belief in the free marketplace and opposition to gov't intervention in the economy


What is conservatism?

A perspective or ideology that emphasizes the values of order, stability, respect for authority, and tradition based on a view that humans are inherently imperfect with a limited capacity to reason.


What do conservatives value over individual freedom?

law and order


What are conservatives concerned with?

declining work ethic


What is the welfare state?

a state in which gov't ensures that all people have a decent standard of living and are provided protection from hardships resulting from circumstances such as unemployment, sickness, disability, and old age.


What is the new right?

A perspectives that combines, in various ways, the promotion of free-market capitalism and limited gov't and traditional culture and moral values.


What does the new right oppose?

affirmative action programs for equality as well as encouragement for groups to develop their distinct culture


What does the new right promote and favour?

promote traditional family values and favours harsh punishments for crimes


What are both traditional conservatism and the new right strongly critical of?

socialism and the redistribution of wealth by government


What does traditional conservatism not accept with the new right?

the free market and minimal gov't


What is different about foreign policy and democracy between traditional conservatism and the new right?

Foreign policy --> new right more activist
New right --> more in favour of democracy


In general, many traditional conservatisms preach the virtues of___and gradual___while the new right pursues its___with___ideological zeal.



What is socialism?

An ideological perspective based on the view that human beings are basically social in nature and that he capitalist system undermines the co-oerative and community-orientated nature of humanity. Socialism advocate the establishment of an egalitarian society.


What are socialists critical of?

capitalist system because of it's exploitative and competitive


What kind of ownership do socialists favour?

social rather than private ownership


What is democratic socialism?

the perspective that socialism should be achieved by democratic rather than revolutionary means and that a socialist society should be democratic in nature with political rights and freedoms respected.


What are social democrats?

refer to themselves as this to indicate that they no loner believe in a social economic system. Believe that the capitalist system can be reformed for the common good, social and economic income equality.


What is communism?

A system in which private property has been replaced by collective or communal ownership and everyone is free to take from society what they need.