Flashcards in Chapter 5- Lecture Deck (57):
What is culture?
-customs and manners
What does Seymour Lipset say political culture is?
It is the general political values, attitudes, and beliefs that are widely held within the political community.
What is the textbook definition of political culture?
the fundament political values, beliefs, and orientations that are widely held within a political community.
Why is culture an interest to those who study human social and political life?
because culture is collective, a human creation, and inherited
In what ways does socialization disseminate political culture?
In what three ways can the study of culture be significant to the study of politics?
1) culture as difference
2) culture as power
3) culture and principles of democracy
Why is culture as difference significant to the study of politics?
culture may help to describe and explain differences between states
-it is an important basis for comparative analysis
Why is culture as power significant to the study of politics?
Culture has been used to explain why some groups hold power and how and why subordinate groups do not challenge those in power.
"To control a people's culture is to control their tools of self definition in relationship to others. Economic and political control can never be complete or effective without mental control"
What does he mean? (hint, has to do with origin stories).
-The nation as a concept
-A lot of that story is selective, exclusive
-All nations have an origin story that is based on power as the political culture we adopt has come from the dominant group of people
What do Marxists believe in terms of cultural hegemony?
"According to Marxists and some elements with contemporary feminism, the values and beliefs of the dominant class or of males, respectively, are developed as normal and inevitable by society as a whole, despite the fact that they are contrary to the true interests of the subordinate class."
How is culture and principles of democracy significant to the study of politics? Example?
The study of culture is significant to the study of politics, especially as it pertains to larger normative questions that frame the principles of democracy such as, for example, justice.
Ex. Its it enough to say that equality is achieved when all the laws in a country treat everyone the same?
In summary, why is culture highly relevant to the study of politics?
Because it pertains to 1) differences between countries, 2) relations or power, and challenges the status quo and 3) questions that pertain to democratic principles such as equality.
What do we use ideological perspectives and fundamental politically relevant values to describe?
the political culture of a political community
What is the political culture of the US described as?
What ideology is a component of the political culture of the Scandinavian countries?
Social democratic ideology
What are macro theories (sources of political culture)? Ex?
From this perspective, political culture is about culture from the motherland. Focus on the elite, macro theories give us the big picture.
Who developed fragment theory?
What is fragment theory
the theory that ties together European political culture and how it was selectively transferred to countries that were colonized by euro settlers
How does Hartz suggest that conservatism and liberalism emerged?
As competing sets of political ideas in Europe (the backdrop from feudalism/capitalism) and leads to socialism
European society embraces a___political culture that includes socialism, conservatism, and liberalism as a result.
What happened to countries colonized by European settlers according the Hartz? In his view, the US and Canada are basically liberal___where such values as individual freedom are predominant?
-only the leading part of the mother country's political culture was carried to new lands
What does fragment theory ignore?
What does fragment theory presume?
that the transmission of the fragment culture depends on social structure and political institutions from the founding perception--and ideas, values, beliefs that were embraced by the founders and passed down the generations.
According to fragment theory, apart from material possession, immigrants also bring what?
According to David Bell and Lorne Tepperman, what does fragment theory see?
the culture of founding groups as genetic codes that sets limits to cultural development.
Who does Gad Horowitz credit for setting in place both elements of liberalism and conservatism in Canada?
American loyalists are uniquely responsible and set in place room for socialism
What does formative events theory propose?
this theory proposes pivotal or formative events are responsible for directing particular values and beliefs along a specific path
-looks to our unique history.
Who is the formative events theorist?
Seymour Martin Lipset
What claim is Lipset responsible for setting in place?
the claim that the revolutionary origins of the US and the counter-revolutionary origins of Canada and were formative in setting place political developments (and values and ideas) that shaped each nation.
Canadians, Lipset argued, are more___towards those in positions of authority and are more willing to___collective action for the common good. Americas are more___and___of government. The Canadian political culture is also characterized by a___acceptance and tolerance of differences in society than the American political culture.
What influenced a more deferential attitude towards authority in Canada?
idea of a counter-revolutionary past
What is the key concept of formative events theory of the difference between the US and Canada?
distrust of government
What may have caused the recent distrust in gov't in Canada?
-drop in oil prices
-2000s successive period of minority gov't (gov't was unstable)
Does formative events theory account for the change?
Canada is moving away from social democratic to what?
What kind of policies did Lipset believe Canadians had become more willing to accept than Americans even though american political culture was viewed as including a strong belief in equality of opportunity so that individuals could advance on their own merit?
He noted that Canadians had become more willing than Americans to support government action to pursue egalitarian policies that redistribute wealth and income to the poor and disadvantaged.
Why is it questionable whether the Canadian political culture is still more conservative than the American one?
Canadians have become less deferential to authority than Americans. As well, the level of trust and confidence in gov't tends to be low in both Canada and the US
What is efficacy?
citizens have an impact on politics
What does a class analysis perspective propose?
culture and the institutions that embody and perpetrate it are the product of class relations
What do environmentalists believe?
Political culture driven by consumerism rather thanking connected to environment is problematic
The social order and the values that are accepted as the status quo are the product of what?
specific class interests
What does political culture have to prove? What did Marx believe these interests were specifically to?
Political culture has to prove economic growth. For Marx, these interests were specifically to the bourgeoisie or capitalist class.
What did Marx believe that state was instrumental in maintaining?
Class relations and capitalism
Since democracy is ultimately based on the citizenry, it is suggested that what type of political culture is needed if democracy is to be sustained and meaningful?
democratic political culture
What did Almond and Veroba argue?
that the most suitable basis for democracy involves a mixture of participant, subject, and parochial political roles.
What is civic culture?
the political culture that is desired to maintain democracy (a mix of all three types)
What are parochial political cultures described as? What do citizens identify with? Example?
defined as underdeveloped political systems where the collective has very little political knowledge or awareness of government, it places few expectations of institutions of the state, and is very limited in participation.
-citizens identify with the immediate locality
What is a subject political culture? How do citizens see themselves? Example?
Non-democratic societies with authoritarian post. Aware of political system and gov't politics but not in a position to affect institutions of government.
-feel powerless and see themselves as obedient subjects rather than as participants.
Ex. West Germany, circa 1950
What is a participant political culture? What do individuals feel like? What is an example?
Within these societies citizens are aware of political system and are repositioned as such that they engage, organize, and act readily within the political system. High degree of political culture and efficacy.
-individuals feel like they can affect outcomes
Ex. United States
What do Almond and Veroba believe will happen if we go too far one way or the other (towards capacity to govern or responsive government)?
democracy will not function
Why we want gov't to be responsive?
meet the needs of individualism society
What is civic culture a balance of?
A balance between responsive government and a firm capacity to govern
What problem arises if all government offices do is cater to their constituency (are too responsive)?
they may only listen to the wealthy, the majority, or the loudest voice
What is the capacity to govern?
let government create laws
What is the problem with too much capacity to govern?
Man be that it may lead to an authoritarian state or oligarchy
Will "giving the people what they want" as a mantra for democracy always be in the best interest of the long term stability of a democratic system?
may not always be