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Flashcards in Water Deck (47)
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1

What is the global water budget?

the annual balance of water fluxes and the size of water stores

2

What is one type of non-renewable water source?

Fossil water

3

What is the drainage basin?

the area of land driven by a river and tributaries

4

What is the watershed?

the boundary of the drainage basin

5

What is orographic rainfall?

water vapour is forced up the mountain and it cools and condenses due to altitude. Precipitation then occurs over the mountains

6

What is cyclonic rainfall?

warm and cool air meet and as warm air is less dense it rises and condenses

7

What is conventional rainfall?

normally happens in a 24 hour cycle where insolation starts evaporation which leads to precipitations later in the day

8

Factors which factors which affect basin flows and fluxes?

Infiltration, interception, rainfall, overland flow, percolation and evaporation/transpiration

9

Physical factors which affect a drainage basin

Climate, soil, geology, relief and vegetation

10

Human factors which affect a drainage basin

Urbanisation, dams, deforestation and over grazing

11

Factors which impact river regime

Size of basin, precipitation, geology, temperature and human activities

12

What is a drought?

an extended period of deficient rainfall relative to the statistical multi-year average for a region

13

What is a meteorological drought?

occurs when long-term precipitation is much lower than normal

14

What is an agricultural drought?

occurs when there is insufficient soil moisture to meet the needs of particular crops at a particular time

15

What is a hydrological drought?

occurs when there are deficiencies in surface and subsurface water supplies, measured in rivers, lakes and groundwater

16

What is a socio-economic drought?

occurs when the water demand for social and economic purposes exceeds water availability

17

What are the physical causes of drought?

ITCZ, Mid-Atlantic blocking anticyclones, ENSO and other general processes (intense solar radiation)

18

What is the ITCZ?

A belt of low atmospheric pressure located around the equator moves north and south of the equator seasonally
wet seasons= when it arrives
dry seasons=when it moves away

19

What are Mid-Atlantic blocking anticyclones?

Precipitation is created when warm tropical air rises over cold polar air
These anticyclones bring stable conditions with little precipitation (heat waves) and forcing rain-baring depressions out

20

What is the ENSO?

El Nino is a naturally occurring large mass of very warm seawater in the equatorial Pacific Ocean
Warm moist air is pushed from South America to Australia by ocean currents, creating precipitation

21

What are human causes of drought?

over abstraction, reservoirs/dams, deforestation, overgrazing, enhanced greenhouse effect and urbanisation

22

What is an ecosystem?

an interconnected community of living organisms within a defined physical environment

23

What is a biome?

the specific geographical location where animals and plants interact

24

What are benefits of wetlands to humans?

research, tourism, aesthetics, education, freshwater source

25

What are benefits of wetlands to the environment?

maintain the hydrological cycle, habitats, high biodiversity, photosynthesis

26

What is flooding?

when a river exceeds bankfull discharge

27

What are human causes of flooding?

deforestation, global warming, urbanization, overgrazing

28

What are physical causes of flooding?

increased precipiation, natural disaster, impermeable rocks, rise in temperature, topography

29

How does climate change impact inputs and outputsof the hydrological cycle?

Increased evaporation, intense rainfall, flash flooding in urban areas, sea levels rising by 1m by 2100

30

What is water insecurity?

the capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality of water for sustaining human well being and socio-economic development