Flashcards in Globalisation Deck (38)
What 5 factors accelerate globalisation?
TNC's, Lower transport costs, Technology, International Organisations and New markets
What is the definition of globalisation?
the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services
Advantages of trade blocs?
Protection from foreign competitors and political stability (limit cheap goods from China)
Bigger markets, but no extra taxes ( Uk companies such as Tesco have benefitted by expanding to the EU)
National firms can merge to form TNC's (bringing greater investment and therefore sales)
Disadvantages of trade blocs?
Compromise (must follow foreign firm to gain market share)
Loss of sovereignty (EU deals with trade as well as human rights)
Interdependence (countries become more dependent on each other because of trade)
What do international organisations such as the IMF, World Bank, and WTO promote?
FDI, privatisation, and trade barriers.
Physical reasons an area/country may be switched off
Distance from the market, wilderness, low agricultural potential (eg. Chad= growing season is 2 months and 2/3 are subsistence farmers)
Economic reasons an area/country may be switched off
Government debt, poor education/workforce, poor transport/telecommunications (eg. Ethipoia+has to repay million in debt)
Political reasons an area/country may be switched off
Corruption, civil/tribal conflict, and disadvantage by trade blocs
Positives of TNC's
Provide employment, cheap goods for consumers, encourage FDI and improve infrastructure
Negatives of TNC's
Cheap labour, poor working conditions, over power governments and take jobs from people in MEDCs
What are key causes of deindustrialisation?
Key companies outsourced, unemployment, no source of income, cant afford mortgage and abandonment of houses/factories
What are push factors of rural to urban migration?
Poorly paid farm jobs and poor education and health standards
What are pull factors of rural to urban migration?
Better schools and universities, houses more likely to be piped, have electricity and sewage disposal, better healthcare and jobs
What do hyper globaliser believe?
Globalisation is a successful process. Cultures will become more integrated and homogenous cultures will occur. (eg. similar consumer demands across cultures)
What do transformalists believe?
Cultures are dynamic in their response to globalisation. All cultures will change, but in different ways and new hybrid cultures may evolve (eg. rap music emerged from the USA and spread globally, but hasn't developed in some countries such as Japan)
What do sceptics believe?
Globalisation is profound at the core of global economies and reflects their interdependence. Beyond this core, there is marginalisation, not destruction of poorer groups (eg. the rise of China and India will prevent the dominance of western cultures)
Describe ways in which there has been attempt to control the spread of globalisation
Protecting cultural identity, trade protection, fair trade, rise in localism and recycling
Deindustrialisation case study
Detroit USA (highest unemployment rate in US)
How many sq kilometres are there in Detroit of vacant land?
How many schools have close in Detroit?
How many leave Detroit?
1000 per month
What is the murder rate in Detroit?
45 per 100,000
What are the challenges of rural to urban migration in Mumbai?
Waste, informal economy, sanitation and housing
How is waste a challenge in Mumbai?
1 million rubbish bags are collected daily
80% of plastic is recycled in Dharavi- compared to 20% in the UK
How is sanitation a challenge in Mumbai?
500 people per toilet and 4000 cases of diseases related to poor sanitation per day
How is housing a challenge in Mumbai?
In the squatter settlement of Dharavi there are 1 million people per square kilometer
What are the advantages of high wage immigrants to the host country?
Russian interested in high culture
Russians spend £4.5 million a year in London
Many buy properties in Mayfair worth £10 million
What are the disadvantages of high wage immigrants to the host country?
Pushing Londoners out of Mayfair
What are the advantages of low wage immigrants to the host country?
Migrants contribute £25 billion per year
Business turnover increase by 20-30% due to polish workers
Fill skills shortage