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How are there differences within the UK?

34% of children live below the poverty line in Camden(national poverty line is 21%)
Highest median earnings found in SW London


What can unemployment indicate?

Health, life expectancy, and education


What are the physical causes of change in an area?

Coastal erosion
Location- impacts trade and development
eg. Bangladesh floods caused $14 million in damage


How can the accessibility cause change in an area?

Good transport= more developed and FDI
Rural areas are becoming more urban
eg.HS2 linking major cities such as London, Birmingham and Manchester


How can historical development cause change in an area?

The layout in historical cities makes it difficult to expand
Kept in place due to tourism
eg. Totnes, Devon introduced projets to protect it's local history and culture


How can the local and national planning cause change in an area?

Desirable and accessible areas will see and increase in house price and congestion
eg. Bicester is branded as a 'Garden city' due to city expansion
eg. HS2 and other transport methods make travelling from rural peripheries to urban cores easier


How can places change?

Physical factors, accessibility, historical development and local/national planning


By what processes do places change?

Gentrification, multiculturalism, studentification and ageing population


How can a place change by gentrification?

Notting Hill consisted of many poorly built terraced housing
-Now dominated by young professionals
-High earning sector jobs (finance)


How can a place change by multiculturalism?

Bradford contained mostly white British people
-Now there are more Muslim and Islamic religions
-35% don't have English as their 1st language


How can a place change by studentification?

Leeds was home to mainly factory workers
-Now dominated by 31,900 students from Leeds uni


How can an ageing population change a place?

Cornwall was mainly primary employment (fishing)
-Now tourism and seasonal workers
-Tourism employs 25% of Cornwalls industry
-Many have retired in Cornwall


What makes an area successful?

Low deprivation, inward migration, high property prices, high employment, TNC's and improved infrastructure and living environment


What are sink estates?

Housing estates characterised by high levels of economic and social deprivation as well as crime.


What are the priorities of sink estates?

Protect and enhance sports facilities
Build high-quality housing
eg. East Middlesborough


How many new homes in East Middleborough?



What are commuter villages?

Settlements with a high proportion of people commuting to large settlements


What are the priorities of commuter villages?

Encourage a mixture of house sizes and types
Invest in public transport
eg West Berkshire and Yale, Bristol


What are gated communities?

Found in urban and rural settlements that are landscape surveillanced to reduce crime


What are the priorities of gated communities?

Protect against crime, vandalism and anti-social behavior
High property prices
eg.Hidden Hills, California where property prices start around £3 million


By how much did the national election turnout fall by in 1997-2001?

77.7% - 59.4%


What is a shared equity loan?

Since 2013 the scheme has made it possible to borrow up to 20% of a newly built houses up to £600,000 from the government.


What is shared ownership?

Aka part buy, part rent. Refers to all low cost ownership schemes in England.


What is rebranding?

the area is sold and advertised to change the impression of investors


What would make regeneration successful socially?

Smaller inequality gap, crime and deprivation reduction and improvements in life expectancy and health


What would make regeneration successful economically?

Rise in income, affordable housing and schemes focused to generate jobs.


What would make regeneration successful environmental?

Use of brownfield sites, reduction of pollution, more open green space and reduced derelict land


How national policy enables trade case study?

Northern powerhouse


How many new businesses set up in the Northern powerhouse?



What is the worth of goods exported in the Northern powerhouse?

£60 billion