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Flashcards in Water And Carbon Deck (864):

What does the availability and quantity of water help tie together

The Earths lands, oceans and atmosphere into an integrated physical system


What is the most important greenhouse gas

Water vapour


What does the poor understanding of the water cycles interactions and processes at a variety of scale lead to

Bad representation in model predications


Where is carbon stored

Everywhere: in the oceans, rocks and soil, in all forms of life and our atmosphere


What does the well-bring and functioning of our planet depend on

Carbon and how it cycles through the Earths system


How does the carbon cycle play a key role in regulating the global temperature and climate change

By controlling the amount of another greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere


What is a flow/transfer

A form of linkage between one store/component and another that involved movement of energy or mass


What is an input

The addition of matter and/or energy into a system


What is a store/ component

A part of the system where energy/ mass is stored or transformed


What is a system

A set of interrelated components working towards some kind of process


Why do geographers attempt to simplify aspects of the Earth

It is highly complex.
They want relationships between components to be better understood.


What are simplifications of highly complex processes called

Models such as the water cycle or the demographic transition model


What is a type of model that is widely used

The system


What are the three properties of systems



What are elements in the system

The things that make up the system


What are attributes of a system

The perceived characteristics of the elements


What are the relationships in a system

Descriptions of how the various elements (and their attributes) work together to carry out some kind of process


What are the four common characteristics of systems

- structure that lies within in a boundary.

- generalisations of reality, removing incidental detail that obscures fundamental relationships.

- they function by having inputs and outputs of material that is processes within the components causing it to change.

- involve the flow of material between components.


What are the three classifications of systems

Isolated systems
Closed systems
Open systems


What are isolated systems

They have no interaction with anything outside the system boundary. No inputs or outputs of energy. Many controlled lab experiments are this type of systems but they are rare in nature.


What is a closed system

Transfers of energy both into and beyond the system boundary but not transfer of matter


What are open systems

Matter and energy transferred from the system across the boundary into the surrounding environment. Most ecosystems are an example of this.


Specific example of an open system

A drainage basin hydrological system


When is a system said to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium

Where there is a balance between the inputs and outputs


What is feedback

When one of the inputs increases without any corresponding change in the outputs - the stores changes


What are the two types of feedback

Positive feedback
Negative feedback


What is positive feedback

Where the effects of an action are amplified or multiplied by subsequent knock-on or secondary effects (for example increase in carbon dioxide)


What is negative feedback

Where the effects of an action are nullified by subsequent knock-on effects (for example the increased use of fossil fuels)


Example of positive feedback in the carbon cycle system

More Co2 in the atmosphere.
(This acts as a greenhouse gas)
Global temperature rise.
(This warms the ocean)
Increased oceanic temperatures.
(Warm water less able to dissolve gas)
Dissolved Co2 release by warmer oceans.
(Co2 back into the atmosphere)
More Co2 in the atmosphere.


Example of negative feedback in the carbon cycle

Increased use of fossil fuels.
Increased in atmospheric Co2.
Global temperature increase.
More plant growth.
Increased take up of Co2.
Reduces atmospheric Co2.
This has dampening effect and reduce global temperature.


How does energy come into the system

Form of solar energy


What is the energy coming into systems in the form of solar energy balanced by

Radiant energy lost by the Earth


What is ‘Spaceship Earth’

A term to express the concern over the use of limited resources available on Earth and encouraging everyone on it to act as a harmonious crew working towards the greater good


What are the four major subsystems at a global level on the Earth



What is a cascading system

An open system that forms part of a chain such as the four major subsystems on Earth


What has a profound effect on the Earths climate and climate change

Interlocking relationships amount the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere


What is vital to life on Earth

The availability and quantity of water


What is the global water cycle driven by

Many complex processes and interactions at a variety of scales


What is atmospheric water

Water found in the atmosphere; mainly water vapour with some liquid water (cloud and rain droplets) and ice crystals


What is cryospheric water

The water locked up in the Earths surface as ice


What is the hydrosphere

A discontinuous layer of water at or near the Earths surface. It includes all liquid and frozen surface waters, groundwater held in soil and rock and atmospheric water vapour


What is oceanic water

The water contained in the Earths oceans and seas but not including such inland seas as the Caspian Sea


What is terrestrial water

This consists of groundwater, soil moisture, lakes, wetlands and rivers


Who said ‘Water is life’s matter, mother and medium’

Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, 1937 Nobel Prize acceptance speech


Percentage of all water on earth

97% ocean
3% fresh water


What are the percentages of stores in fresh water

Ice caps and glaciers 79%
Groundwater 20%
Easily accessible surface fresh water 1%


What are the percentage of stores in easily accessible surface fresh water

Lakes 52%
Soil moisture 38%
Atmospheric water vapour 8%
Rivers 1%
Water within living organisms 1%


Important percentages to know for all water on plent earth

3% is fresh water
Of this, 1% is easily accessible
Of this, 52% is lakes, 38% is soil moisture


What is the general agreement that scientists have come to on the amount of water in the hydrosphere

Estimated at 1.338 x 10^9 km^3


Examples of cryospheric water

Sea Ice
Ice caps
Ice sheets
Alpine Glaciers


Examples of terrestrial water



How much water vapour is found in the atmosphere

12,900km^3 which is a global average of 26kg/m^2 for each column of air on the surface of the earth


What percentage of water on earth is atmospheric water

0.4% and is has a profound effect on our lives at present


What is the amount of water in the stores in a state of

Dynamic equilibrium with changes at a range of timescales from diurnal to geological


In the future, what could changes in the amount of atmospheric water cause

Important effects on climate change


What do the figure of the amount of water in the ocean range from

1,320,000,000 to 1,370,000,000km^3 with an average depth of 3,682m.


What percentage of the planets surface does oceanic water cover



What is oceanic water customarily divided into

Several principal oceans and smaller seas


While the ocean contains 97% of the worlds water, how much have oceanographers stated have been explored



Why does oceanic water taste salty

Because it contains dissolved salts


What do the salts in oceanic water allow

It to stay as liquid water even below 0*C


What is the pH of oceanic water

Alkaline with an average pH of about 8.14


What has the pH fallen from in the last 250 years

Fallen from 8.25 to 8.14 and is destined to continue falling


What is the change in the pH of oceanic water linked to

The increase in atmospheric carbon


What may the change in pH have an influence on

Marine ecosystems


Example of sea ice

The Ross Ice Shelf


Example of an ice cap

The Iceland Ice Cap


Example of an ice sheet

The Greenland ice sheet


Example of alpine glacier

Mer de Glacé, France


Example of permafrost

The Alaska North Slope


Why does the amount of water frozen In Arctic Ocean change

It grows in winter and shrinks in summer, same is true for the waters in Antarctica


What is much of the Arctic Ocean



When does sea ice form

When water in the oceans is cooled to temperatures below freezing


Why does sea ice not raise sea levels when it melts

Because it forms from the ocean waters


Why are scientists concerned about the recent decline of sea ice

It is closely linked with our planets climate


What are ice shelves

Platforms of ice that form where ice sheets and glaciers move out into the oceans


Where do Ice shelves mainly exist

In Antarctica and Greenland, as well as in the Arctic near Canada and Alaska


What are icebergs

Chunks of ice that break off glaciers and ice shelves and drift in the ocean


When do Ice burgs raise sea levels

When they first leave land and push into the water, but not when they melt in the water


What is an ice sheet

A mass of glacial land ice extending more than 50,000km^2


What do the two major ice sheets on Earth today cover

Most of Greenland and Antarctica


During the last advance, where did ice sheets cover

North America
Northern Europe
Along with Greenland and Antarctica


Together, how much of freshwater on earth is contained in the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets



How far does the Antarctic Ice sheet extend

14 million km^2 - roughly the area of the United States and Mexico combined


How much ice does the Antarctica ice sheet contain

30 million km^3


How far does the Greenland Ice sheet extend

About 1.7 million km^2, covering most of the island of Greenland


Where do Ice sheets form

In seas where snow that falls in the winter does not melt entirely over the summer


How do ice sheets form

Over thousands of years, the layers of snow pile up into thick masses of ice, growing thicker and denser as the weight of new snow and ice layers compresses the older layers


How are Ice sheets constantly in motion

They are slowly flowing downhill under their own weight


Near the coast, how do most ice sheets nice

Through relatively fast-moving outlets called ice streams


Where are Ice sheets significant and why

In the Antarctic


How big can Ice sheets get in the Antarctic

50km wide
2km thick
Hundreds of kilometres King


What conditions are needed for an ice sheet to remain stable

As long as an ice sheet accumulated the same mass of snow as it loses to the sea


If the Greenland ice sheet melted, what do scientists estimate that sea levels would rise by



If the Antarctic Ice sheet melted, what do scientists predict the rise in sea level would be

About 60m


What are ice caps

Hick layers of ice on land that are smaller than 50,000km^2


Where are ice caps usually found

Mountainous areas, They are usually centred over the highest point of an upland area


What shape are ice caps



How do ice caps flow

Outwards, covering almost everything in their path becoming a major source for glaciers


Where do ice caps occur in the world

All over - from the polar regions to mountainous ones such as the Himilayas, the Andes and the Southern Alps of New Zealand


What is Africa’s only remaining ice cap

The Furtwangler Glacier In Kilimanjaro at 60,000m^2. It is melting rapidly and any soon disappear


What are Alpine glaciers

Thick masses of ice


Where are alpine glaciers found

In deep valleys or upland hollows


What are most valley glaciers fed by

Ice from ice caps or smaller corrie glaciers


Why are alpine flavoured important in the Himalayas

15,000 Himalayan glaciers form a unique reservoir which supports perennial rivers which are the lifeline of millions of people in south Asian countries


What are perennial rivers in the Himalayas



Examples of South Asian countries



What ring the Arctic Ocean

Frozen ground and permafrost while glaciers , snow and ice cover the nearby land including Greenland


What is permafrost

Ground (soil or rock and included ice or organic material) that remains at or below 0*C for at least two consecutive years


What does the thickness of permafrost vary between

Less than 1 metre to more than 1,500m


When did most of the permafrost existing today form

During cold glacial periods and has persisted through warmer interglacial periods, including the Holocene.


What is the Holocene

The last 10,000 years


When did some relatively shallow permafrost (30 to 70m) forms

During the second part of the Holocene (last 6,000 years) and some during the Little Ice Age (from 400 to 150 years ago)


When was the Little Ice Age

From 400 to 150 years ago


When does Subsea permafrost occur

At close to 0*C over large areas of the Arctic continental shelf, where it formed during the last glacial period on the exposed shelf landscapes when sea levels were lower


Where is permafrost found

Beneath the ice-free regions of the Antarctica continent and also beneath areas in which the ice sheet is frozen to its bed


Why has permafrost begun to melt

As climate warms


How does melting permafrost affect global climates

Because it releases large amounts of carbon dioxide and methane


What are the four broad classes terrestrial water falls into

Surface water
Soil water
Biological water


What is surface water

The free-flowing water of rivers as well as the water of ponds and lakes


What do rivers act as

Both a store and a transfer of water


How are rivers a store and a transfer of water

Streams of water within a defined channel.
Transfer water from the ground, from soils and from the atmosphere to a store


What may the store that rivers transfer water to be



What percentage of all rivers do rivers make up



What is the overall volume and span of all rivers

1,000,000km^3 span and 2,120km^3 volume


Which River is the largest river by discharge of water in the world

The Amazon in South America


What is the discharge of the Amazon river

209,000m3/s, greater than the next seven largest independent rivers combined


What area approximately does the Amazon river drain



How much of the worlds total river flow does the Amazon account for

One fifth


How big is the Amazon drainage basin in Brazil

The portion of the rivers drainage basin in Brazil alone is larger than any other rivers basin


How much of the Amazons final discharge into the Atlantic Ocean enters Brazil

Only one fifth, yet it has already a greater flow than the discharge of any other river


What are mailed

Collections of fresh water


Where are lakes found

In hollows in the land surface


How big are lakes

Greater than 2 hectare season in area


What is a standing body of water smaller than 2 hectares termed

A pond


What are the majority of lakes on earth



Where do most lakes on earth lie

In the Northern Hemisphere at high altitudes


How many lakes that are larger than 3km^2 does Canada have



How many lakes does Canada have overall

Estimated total of at least 2 million


How many lakes does Finland have

187,888 that are 500km^2 or larger, of which 56,000 are large (10,000m^2)


What is the largest lake and how big is it

The Caspian Sea at 78,200km^3


How old is the Caspian Sea

As it is a remnant of an ancient ocean it is about 5.5 million years old


What is the Caspian Sea generally

Fresh water though it becomes more saline in the south where there are few rivers flowing into it


What is the deepest lake in the world

Lake Baikal in Siberia with a mean depth of 749m and a deepest point at 1,637n


What are does the Ramsar Convention define Wetlands

The Ramsar Convention defines them as ‘areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing where there is a dominance by vegetation’


Simple definition of wetlands

Areas where water covers the soil, or is present either at or near the surface of the soil all year or for varying periods of time during the year, including during the growing season


What does water saturation determine

How the soil develops and the types of plant and animal communities living in and on the soil


What species may wetlands support

Both aquatic and terrestrial


What does the prolonged presence of water in wetlands create

Conditions that favour the growth of specially adapted plants and promotes the development of characteristic wetlands soils


What are the 7 reasons wetlands vary widely

Because of regional and local differences in soils.
Water chemistry.
Other factors like human disturbance.


Where are wetlands found

From the polar regions to the tropics and on every continent except Antarctica


Example of a wetland

The Pantanal of South America, often referred to as the worlds largest freshwater wetlands systems


How far does the Pantanal of South America extend

Through millions of hectares of central western Brazil, eastern Bolivia and eastern Paraguay


What is the Pantanal of South America

A complex system of marshlands, flood plains, lagoons and interconnected drainage lines


How does the Pantanal of South America provide economic benefits

It is a huge area for water purification and groundwater discharge and recharge, climate stabilisation, water supply, flood abatement and an extensive transport system


What are the main ecosystems in the Arctic



What covers nearly 60% of the Arctic

Peatland, rivers, lakes and shallow bays


What do Arctic wetlands store

Enormous amounts of greenhouse gases


What are Arctic wetlands critical for

Global biodiversity


What is groundwater

Water that collects underground in the lite spaces of rock


What have scientists said is the depth of groundwater

4,000m but it is known there are large quantities of water blow that


What was found in Northern Russia

A very deep borehole in the Kola Peninsula, found huge quantities of hot mineralised water at a depth of 13km


What is the water table

The depth at which soil purr spaces of fractures and voids in rocks become completely saturated with water


What eventually happens to groundwater

It is recharged from and eventually flows to the surface.
Sometimes natural discharge can occur at springs and seeks and can form oases or wetlands.


Why is the amount of groundwater reducing rapidly

Due to extensive extraction for use in irrigating agricultural land in dry area


What is soil water

That which is held together with air in unsaturated upper weathered layers of the earth


What is soil water of fundamental importance to

Many hydrological, biological and biogeochemical processes


What 6 things does soil water affect

Weather and climate.
Run-off potential and flood control.
Soil erosion and slope failure.
Reservoir management.
Geotechnical engineering.
Water quality.


What is soil moisture a key variable in

Controlling the exchange of water and heat energy between the land surface and the atmosphere through evaporation and plant transpiration


What does soil moisture play an important role in

The development of weather patterns and the production of precipitation


What is biological water

Constitutes the water stored in all the biomass


What does biological water around the globe depend on

He vegetation cover and type


Where stores more biological water than a desert

Areas of dense rainforest


What is the role of animals as a water store



How do trees take in water

Via their roots


How is water transported in trees

Transported or stored in the trunk and branches of the tree


How is water lost in trees

By the process of transpiration through stomata in the leaves


What does the storage of water in trees provide

A reservoir of water that helps maintain some climatic environments


If the vegetation is destroyed, what happens to the biological water

The store is lost to the atmosphere and he climate can become more desert-like


How much water are many plants adapted to store

Large quantities


How do Cacti gather water

Via their extensive root system and then very slowly use it until the next rainstorm


Why does the baobab tree store water

To strengthen the structure of the tree rather than to be used in tree growth


What states does atmospheric water exist in

All three states


What is the most common atmospheric water

Gas; water vapour


What is water vapour

A clear, colourless and odourless gas


Why is atmospheric water important

It absorbs, reflects and scatters incoming solar radiation, keeping the atmosphere at a temperature that can maintain life


What does the amount of water vapour that can be held by the air depebd in

It’s temperature


Why is the air in the poles quite dry, whereas air in the tropics is very humid

Because cold air cannot hold as much water vapour as warm air


What will a small increase in water vapour lead to

An increase in atmospheric temperatures


How does an increase in water vapour in the atmosphere become positive feedback

A small increase in global temperatures would lead to a rise in global water vapour levels, thus further enhancing the atmospheric warming


What is a cloud

A visible mass of water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere


What is cloud formation the result of

Air in the lower layers of the earths atmosphere becoming saturated due to either or big of two processes: cooling of the air and an increase in water vapour


What happens when cloud droplets grow

They can eventually fall as rain


What are the 3 factors driving the change in magnitude of water stores

Cryopheric processes


What is it called when water vapour is turned to liquid

Condensation, releasing latent heat of vaporisation


What’s the process of liquid to solid

Freezing, releasing latent heat of fusion


What’s the process of ice to water

Sublimation, absorbing latent heat of sublimation


What’s the process of gas to solid

Deposition, releasing latent heat of sublimation


What’s the process of ice to liquid

Melting, absorbing latent heat of fusion


What’s the process of water to gas

Evaporation, absorbing latent heat of vaporisation


What happens to energy, in the form of latent heat, in the phases of water and the phase changes

It is either absorbed or released depending on the process


Where is energy in the form of latent heat particularly important

In atmospheric processes such as cloud or precipitation formation


When does evaporation occur

When energy from solar radiation hits the surface of water or land and causes liquid water to change state from a liquid to a gas


What 4 factors does the rate of evaporation depend on

Amount of solar energy.
Availability of water (e.g more evaporation than a pond then a grassy field).
Humidity of the air (closer the air is to saturation point, the slower the rate of evaporation).
Temperature of the air (warmer air can hold more water than cold air).


What do all terrestrial plants lose water through



What is transpiration

Water is transported from the roots of a plant to its leaves and then lost through pores on the lead surfaces


What can water trapped on leaves be

Evaporated before t reaches the soil


When water evaporates why does it cool its surroundings

It uses energy in the form of latent heat


Explain the process of condensation

As air cools it is able to hold less water vapour.
This means that if it is cooled sufficiently then it will get to a temperature at which it becomes saturated.
This is known as the dew point temperature.
Excess water in the air will then be converted to liquid water in the process of condensation.


What do water molecules need in the process of condensation

Something to condense on


What can water molecules condenser on

Tiny particles like smoke, salt, dust etc that are collectively called condensation nuclei or surfaces like leaves, grass stems and windows that are blow the dew point temperature


What does sublimates mean

Changing directly from gas to solid in the form of hoar frost, done when the surface the vapour is condensing in is below freezing point


What is condensation the direct form of

All forms of precipitation


When does condensation take place

When the temperature of air is reduced to dew point but it’s volume remains constant.
When the volume of air increases but there is no addition of heat.


What is adiabatic cooling

During condensation, when the volume of air increases but there is no addition of heat


When does adiabatic cooling occur

When air rises and expands in the lower pressure of the upper atmosphere


When does the temperature of the air reduce to dew point while the volume remains constant

Warm moist air passes over a cold surface.
On a clear winters night heat is radiated out to space and the ground gets colder, cooling the air directly in contact with it.


When 3 effects cause adiabatic cooling to occur

Relief or orographic effect.
Frontal effect.
Convectional effect.


What is relief or orographic effect

Air is forced to rise over hills


What is the frontal effect

Masses of air of different temperatures and densities meet. The less dense warm air rises over the denser cold air


When does the convectional effect occur

When localised warm surfaces heat the air above, this expands and become less dense and rises


What are the two cryospheric processes

Ablation (melting)


What is there thought to have been in Earths history

5 major glacial periods


When did the most recent glacial period start

2.58 million years ago and continues today


What is the most recent glacial period called

The Quaternary glaciation


During the Quaternary period what was there

Glacial periods when , due to the volume of ice on land, sea level was approx 120m lower than present and continental glaciers covered large parts of Europe and North America. This represents an interruption in the global hydrological cycle.

Interglacial periods when global ablation exceeds accumulation and the hydrological cycle as we know it today returns.


Over the past 740,000 years how many glacial cycles has there been



When is permafrost formed

When air temperatures are so low that they freeze any soil and groundwater present.


Why does permafrost rarely occur under ice

Because the temperatures are not low enough


What is the driving force behind global cloud formation and precipitation

The global atmospheric circulation model


Global atmospheric circulation model summary

At the equator high temperatures result in high rates of evaporation. The warm, moist air rises, cools and condensers to form towering banks of cloud and heavy rainfall in a low pressure zone called the ITCZ:
In the mid latitudes, cloud formation is driven by the convergence of warm air from the tropics and cold air from the Arctic. The boundary of these two distinct air masses - the polar front - results in rising air and cloud (and rain) formation. Strong upper-level winds (the jet stream) drive here unstable weather systems across mid latitudes, establishing the largely changeable conditions experienced in the Uk.
Cloud formation can occur on a more localised scale. The formation of thunderstorms from intense convection activity is somewhat ‘hit and miss’, but it does clearly demonstrate the variations in both time and space of water cycle transfer processes.


On a glacier what does the equilibrium line mark

The altitude where annual accumulation and melting are equal


What is the ITCZ

Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone


What could the total melting of all the polar sheets result in

A 60m rise in sea level


How are rising sea levels a positive feedback in the rate of removal of glacial ice

They can destabilise glaciers and ice shelves leading to accelerated rates of iceberg calving


What are cryospheric processes

Processes that affect the total mass of ice at any scale from local patches of frozen ground to global ice amounts. This includes accumulation (build up of ice mass) and ablation (the loss of ice mass)


What is a drainage basin

The area of land drained by a river and its tributaries. It includes water found in the surface, in the soil and in near-surface geology


What is energy provided by and aided by to cause evaporation

Provided by the sun and aided by the wind


What is evapotranspiration

The total output of water from the drainage basin directly back into the atmosphere


What is groundwater flow

The slow movement of water through underlying rocks


What is infiltration

The downward movement of water from the surface into soil


What is interception storage

The precipitation that falls on the vegetation surfaces of human-made cover and is temporarily stored in these surfaces. Intercepted water can either be evaporated directly to the atmosphere, absorbed by the canopy surfaces or ultimately transmitted to the ground surface


What is overland flow

The tendency of water to flow horizontally across land surfaces when rainfall has exceeded the infiltration capacity of the soil and all surfaces stored are full to overflowing


What is percolation

The downward movement of water within the rock under the soil surface. Rates vary depending on the nature of the rock


What is run-off

All the water that enters a river channel and eventually flows out of the drainage basin


What is saturated

This applies to any water store that has reached its maximum capacity


What is the stem flow

The portion of precipitation intercepted by the canopy that reaches the ground by flowing down stems, stalks or tree bole


What is a storm event

An individual storm is defined as a rainfall period seperated by dry intervals of at least 24 hours (Hamilton)


What is a rainfall event

Defined as a rain fall period separated by dry intervals of at least 4 hours (Hamilton)


What is throughfall

The portion of the precipitation that reaches the ground directly through gaps in the vegetation canopy and drips from leaves, twigs and stems


When does throughfall occu

When the canopy-surface rainwater storage exceeds its storage capacity


What is throughflow

The movement of water down-slope through the subsoil under the influence of gravity.


When is throughflow particularly effective

When underlying permeable rock prevents further downward movement


What is transpiration

The loss of water from vegetation through pores (stomata) on their surfaces


What is the water balance

Balance between inputs (precipitation) and outputs (run off, evapotranspiration, soil and groundwater storage) in a drainage basin


What is a useful way of looking at drainage basins

Consider them as cascading systems - they are a series of open systems hat link together so that the output of one is the input of the next


What supplies a river with it’s supply of water

A drainage basin


What are drainage basins seperated from one another by

High land called a watershed


What is the input to a drainage basin



What has a direct bearing on what happens when the water hits the ground

The nature, intensity and longevity of the precipitation


On a hill slope what happens to precipitation

It lands on the bare surface or more likely vegetation cover.
The vegetation provides an interception store.


What does the density of vegetation mean

That interception store is more


What have studies shown of forests made up of needle-leaf trees

They capture 22% of rainfall


What have studies shown about broad-lead deciduous forests

They intercept 19% of rainfall


What is the difference in rainfall capture between needle-leaf trees and deciduous tree because rid

Density of the vegetation cover rather than the structure of the leaves


What do some tropical rainforests intercept

As much as 58% of the rainfall


What happens to a lot of the water captured by vegetation surfaces

It is evaporated back into the atmosphere


What is the infiltration rate

The rate of infiltration


What is the movement of water into soil controlled by

Capillary action
Soil porosity (most important)


What is a soils porosity controlled by

It's texture, structure and organic content


What do coarse textured soils have

Larger spores and fissures than fine grained soil and allow for more water flow


What can pores and fissures in soil be made larger through

A number of factors that enhance internal soil structure. For example, the burrowing of worms and penetration of plant roots csn increase the size and number of macro and micro-channels within the soil


When does the rate of infiltration normally decline rapidly

During the early part of a rainstorm event


When does infiltration rates reach a constant value

During a rainstorm event after several hours of rainfall


What are 3 reasons for the phenomenon of infiltration dates declining rapidly and then reaching a constant value during a rainstorm event

Filling of pores on the soil surface reduces the ability of capillary forces to actively move water into the soil.
As soil moistens, clay particles absorb water causing them to expand. This expansion reduces the size of soil pores.
Raindrop impact breaks larger soil clumps into smaller particles, these then clog soil surface pores reducing movement of water into soil.


What is soil storage

The amount of water stored in the soil


What does soil consist of

Solid particles with pore spaces between them


What can soil pore spaces be filled with

Air as well as water


How much do the pores in a clay soil account for of the total volume

40 to 60 %


How much do the pores in fine sand account for of the total volume

20 to 45%


What is vegetation storage

Plans removing water from the soil and storing it in the structure of the plant


What happens if rainfall institutions is greater than the infiltration rate

The soil will have reached infiltration capacity and the soil will be saturated


What is surface storage

Water building up on the surface usually in the form of puddles


Where is surface storage common

In man-made environments


What is the infiltration rate usually greater than in natural environments

Greater than the rate of precipitation


When does water build up on the surface

After a long period of rain
An intense rainstorm
Impermeable surface such as an impacted foot path or a frozen surface


Why is the total amount of evaporated water referred to evapotranspiration

Because it is difficult to separate evaporation from transpiration so the total amount outputted is called this


When does overland flow/ sheet flow occur

When the surface stores are full then these will occur on slopes


How fast is overland flow

Very fast flow, rapidly reaching the newest channel


What tends to be much slower than overland flow



What happens to throughflow in a very vegetated area

It has a faster rate becsuse it is aided by root channels in the soil


What is the vertical transfer that happens after infiltration

Percolation which can then be held in pore spaces in the rocks as groundwater


What is groundwater flow

Groundwater passing slowly into the zone of saturated rock where it can then more vertically and laterally by this process, very slow movement


What can groundwater flow feed

Rivers through long periods of drought


What is an aquifer

Rocks that are able to store a lot of water, especially if they are porous


What do the sum of all the movements and stores of water add up to form

The drainage basin hydrological cycle


How do rivers transfer water

By channel flow


What is the amount of water that leaves the drainage basin through channel flow called



What is the fastest movement of water and why

Along the surface becsuse there are relatively few obstacles slowing it down


Why do urban surfaces have especially fast water movement

Because they are often designed to move the water quickly by having strategically placed slopes and very smooth surfaces


What are the differences of throughflow in woodlands compared to clay soil

Under woodlands there are many channels created by roots as well as burrowing animals and these allow relatively free movement. Whereas clay soils retain water, hindering ant movement, they can dry out from the surface down before they allow any horizontal movement.


How long can groundwater be held and why

A millennia because once the waters in the docks the rate of transfer slows considerably


What are the varying timescales of water movements



What is the net transport from ocean to land with about the same amount returning by the rivers to the ocean

38 units


What indicated a considerable recirculating of water over land

The amount of precipitation over the continents is almost three times as high than that over oceans


What does the recirculation of water over land have

A marked annual cycle as well as having large variations between continents


When is the recirculation of water over land larger

During the summer and for tropical land areas


Where does most of the water from the Pacific Ocean recirculate between

Different parts of the Pacific itself with there being little net transport towards land


The pattern of water exchange between ocean and land is different in which oceans

The Atlantic and Indian Ocean


What fraction of the total net transport of water towards continents come from the Atlantic Ocean



Where does 2/3s of the total net transport of water towards continents come from

The Atlantic Ocean with the rest essentially from the Indian Ocean


Where does most of the continental water for North and South America, Europe and Africa emanates from and is returned to

From the Atlantic Ocean and returned to there by rivers


What is known as the water balance/budget

Within a drainage basin, the balance between inputs and outputs is known as this


When do rivers occur

Only if the stores are able to release water, there is a direct precipitation, or there is overland flow into the river


As a river moves downstream, what are they fed by

Their tributary streams


What is the rivers regime

Discharge levels rise and fall often showing an annual pattern - a rivers regime


What can the water balance be calculated by

Precipitation (P) = Discharge (Q) + Evapotranspiration (E)
+/- changes in storage (S)


What are the two most important parts of the water balance

Precipitation and 'potential' evapotranspiration


What is evapotranspiration closely related to

The prevailing temperature, the warmer it is the higher the evapotranspiration. It is often the case that the temperature, and so the atmospheres ability to hold water vapour, is greater rhan the amount of water available


What is potential evapotranspiration

The amount of water that could be evaporated or transpired (or both) from an area if there was sufficient water available


What is the relationship between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration for a place over a year illustrated by

A soil moisture graph


What does a soil moisture graph look like for eastern England

During Half of October, November, December, January and half of February: precipitation is higher than potential evapotranspiration and so the soil water store is fully recharged.

During other half of Febuary, March and April: precipitation is greater than PET so all space in the soil has been filled so it is in surplus, groundwater recharged and overland flow can occur leading to flooding.

During May, June, July: as it warms up PET exceeds precipitation so the water store is being used by plants (utilisation)

During August, September and the first half of October: there is a deficit of soil water. Plants either wilt or have adaptions fo survive dry conditions as the PET is falling rapidly.

PET rises to a peak in July and falls down again.
Precipitation gets only a little less during the peak of PET.


Why do soil moisture graphs vary significantly

It depends on the climate


What does a soil moisture graph look like for an equatorial area

The rainfall has two marked maxima. Because the temperatures vary very little throughout the year the PET stays relatively constant. High rain fall fills the soil stores rapidly. In short time between the rainfall maxima, soil water does not go into deficit and so rivers and plants have a source of water all year round. High potential of flooding between Februrary and June and again in August to November.


Example of Equatorial area

Yaounde, Cameroon


Soil moisture graph for a tropical wet/dry climate

During the rainy season (July to October) the soils are recharged until there is a surplus. This does not last long when rain stops. There is a short period of utilisation but from December to July the soil is dry. River levels fall with many drying up all together.


Example of a tropical wet/dry climate

Navrongo, Northern Ghana


How have vegetation adapted to fit sigh the tropical climate soil moisture graphs

Vegetation has adapted to this seasonal water supply by evolving characteristics to enable it to survive drought.


How have humans adapted to fit with tropical climates soil moisture graphs

By following migrating herds of animals that have themselves migrated flowing the rains north and south


How is river flow studied

By measuring the discharge of a river


How do you calculate river discharge

Multiplying the cross-sectional area of the river by its velocity at the measuring point


What is river discharge measured by

M^3/secs or cumecs


What does bankfull mean

The maximum discharge that a river channel is capable of carrying without flooding


What is the base flow

This represents the normal day-to-day discharge of the river and is the consequence of slow moving soil throughflow and groundwater seeping into the river channel


What is the discharge of a river

The amount of water in a river flowing last at a particular point


What is the lag time

The time between the peak rainfall and peak discharge


What is the peak discharge

The point on a flood hydrograph when river discharge is at its greatest


What is a storm flow

Discharge resulting from storm precipitation involving both overland flow, throughflow and groundwater flow


What is a storm hydrograph

A graph of discharge of s river over the time period when the normal flow of a river is affected by a storm event


What is discharge the combined result of

The many climatological and geographical factors which interact within a drainage basin


What is the knowledge of discharge very important in

The assessment and management of water resources (including irrigation provision), the design of water related structures (reservoirs, bridges, flood banks, urban drainage schemes' sewage treatment works) and flood warning and alleviation schemes.
It can also help in developing hydroelectric power and protecting both the ecological health of watercourse and wetlands and their amenity and recreational value.


Why is keeping records of river flows important

Climate change is expected to impact very unevenly on river discharge patterns so keeping records is key go identify, quantify and interpret hydrological trends


What will identifying hydrological trends help in

The development of more effective ways of dealing with future flood and drought episode


How many measuring stations does the UKs dense gauging station network have

1,500 supported by secondary and temporary monitoring sites


Why is such a large number of measuring stations of discharge in the UK needed

Because the UK contains a multiplicity of most small river basins and is diverse in terms of its climate, topography, geology, land use and patterns of water usage


What is a way to measure the discharge of a river

A weir of known shape


How does a weir of known shape measure discharge in a river

The amount of water flowing over the weir is proportional to the depth of water at the weir. The depth of the water flowing over the weird can be converted into discharge using an equation


What is a river regime

The variability in its discharge throughout the course of a year in response to precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration and drainage basin characteristics


How many river systems are within the UK

Almost 1,500


What are river systems extremely sensitive to

Climatic variation, Land use change and water abstraction. They are also greatly influenced by the landscapes through which they flow


What do Uk rivers range from

Mountain torrents draining areas receiving up to five metres of rains year, to much more placid groundwater-fed streams supported by much lower rainfall in parts of southeast England


How is UK rainfall distributed throughout the year

Fairly evenly distributed with a slight Autumn/ winter maximum, particularly in the west. Late summer/early autumn minimum becsuse of temperate variations


What does seasonal variations in temperature and sunshine amount mean

That evapotranspiration loses are heavily concentrated in the summer


Where does the Mohawk River flow and what is its river regime

Out of the mountains of upper New York State. Here the extremely snowy, cold and long winters and drier, hot summers lead to a different pattern of river discharge


What does the river regime of the river Avon, Bath look like

Highest discharge in winter, slightly higher rainfall, much less evapotranspiration.
Discharge falls through spring and early summer as plants take up more water and leaves grow; evapotranspiration increases.
Late summer minimum, highest temperature and plants in full leaf increase evapotranspiration.
Flow rises in the autumn as leaves are lost and temperature fall. Often an increase in wind as well.


What has a major influence on flow patterns of river

The geological characteristics


Why do neighbouring catchments in the Thames basin have different river regimes

Although they experience almost identical climatic conditions, the flow regime for the Lambourn (which is supplied by springs from the underlying chalk) is much less variable than that for the Ock which drains an impermeable clay catchment


What does the river regime for the Mohawk River (New York) look like

Very low temperatures and long winters lead to moderately low discharge becsuse much of the precipitation remains on the ground as snow. Sometimes the river freezes.
Spring maximum discharge caused by snow melting in the Adirondak and Catskill mountains.
Summer temperatures averaging 26.5*C lead to high evapotranspiration rates.
Increasing rainfall from extra-tropical cyclones moving up from Gulf of Mexico increase discharge.


What do rainfall events mean for the pattern of river flows

They are not smooth


Why do some hydrographs have a jagged appearance

Becsuse each time it rains then the river responds quickly


What can be studied using a hydrograph

Each sudden rise and then subsequent fall in discharge


What are storm hydrographs

Graphs of discharge over the time period when the normal flow of river is affected by a storm event


Why are storm hydrographs important

Because they can predict how a river might respond to a rainstorm which can help in managing the river


What does are the components of a storm hydrograph

The base flow which is the amount of water that would be in the river without the addition of the storm water.
Rainfall event and then the Peak rainfall.
The rising limb indicates how quickly a river responds to a storm.
Lag time.
the Peak discharge.
Receding limb.
Bankfull discharge, above this line the river will begin to overflow and from this line to the peak discharge is the amount of flood water.


What does the slow movement of water mean for a river

The changes in its discharges are small


What does the fast movement of storm water mean for a river

The river begins to be fed by much more fast-moving water and the discharge rises


When all storm water has passed through a river what happens

The river returns to its base flow


What is a flashy hydrograph

Hydrographs that have a short lag time, high peak discharge, steep rising and falling limbs


What are the physical factors that determine if it's a flashy hydrograph

Drainage basins that are more circular in shape lead to more flashy hydrographs than those that are long and thin.

Drainage basins with steep sides tend to have flashier hydrographs than gently sloped river basins.

Basins with a high drainage density.

If drainage basin is already saturated by antecedent rainfall.

If soil or rock type within the river basin is impermeable.

Less vegetation cover.

Amount and intensity of precipitation.

Large drainage basins catch more precipitation so have a higher peak discharge compared to smaller basins.


Why are more circular drainage basins likely to have a more flashy hydrograph

Because each point in the drainage basin is roughly equidistant from the measuring point on a river


Why are more steep sided drainage basins likely to have flashier hydrographs

Water flows more quickly on the steep slopes, whether as throughflow or overland flow and so gets to the river more quickly


What does high drainage density mean

They have a lot of streams acting as tributaries to the main river


Why are high drainage density drainage basins likely to have flashier hydrographs

All the water arrives at the measuring station at the same time becsuse of the surface streams acting as tributaries


Why are already saturated drainage basins likely to have flashier hydrographs

Overland flow increases because infiltration capacity has been reached. Since overland flow is the fastest of transfers the lag time is reduced meaning peak discharge is higher


Why are impermeable drainage basins likely to have flashier hydrographs

Overland flow will be higher. Throughflow and infiltration will be reduced meaning a flashy hydrograph, or if the surfaces are baked hard by the sun during a long period of dry weather or frozen surfaces from cold weather.


Example of impermeable surfaces

Clay soils or shale rocks


Why do drainage basins underlaid by sandstone have a subdued hydrograph

Because it is permeable so the water soaks into the porous rock


What are the two types of hydrograph



How does vegetation have an affect on the shape of a hydrograph

Thick vegetation will have a significant effect. This would intercept precipitation, holding the water on its leaves slowing the movement of rainwater to the ground and so to river channels. Water is also lost due to evaporation and transpiration from vegetation surfaces reduces how much water gets to the river. This subdues the storm hydrograph, increasing lag time and reducing peak discharge.


How does the amount of precipitation affect storm hydrographs

Heavy storms with a lot of water entering the drainage basin over a short time result in higher discharge.


How does the type of precipitation affect storm hydrographs

Lag time is likely to be greater if the precipitation is snow rather than rain this is because snow takes time to melt before the water enters the river channel. When there is rapid melting of snow the peak discharge could be higher


What are the human factors that affect the shape of a hydrograph

Agriculture: ploughing, terracing on hillsides, grass crops, large numbers of animals.
Growth of urban areas and other large impermeable surfaces.
Some soft engineering flood managment schemes.
Water abstraction.


How does deforestation determine the shape of the hydrograph

It reduces interception rates allowing rainwater to hit the surface directly and the lack of vegetation roots reduce infiltration rates. These lead to rapid overland flow and flashy hydrographs.
Also exposes the soil to erosion which leads to sedimentation of the channel which reduces the bankfull capacity of a river and leads to a greater chance of flooding.


How does afforestation determine the shape of a hydrograph

It has the opposite effect of deforestation making it a useful flood prevention measure. It increases interception and infiltration which slows the process of water to the river channel and subdues any changes in discharge


How does ploughing affect the shape of a hydrograph

It breaks up the top soil and allows greater infiltration, subduing hydrographs. This can be enhanced by contour ploughing as the furrows can act as small stream channels and lead to flashier hydrographs. Ploughing set soils can cause impermeable smears in the subsoil called plough pans which inhibit percolation leading to greater surface flows.


What is contour ploughing

Furrows are created that run directly down slope


How does terracing on hillsides change the shape of a hydrograph

They stop the movement of water downhill and subdues hydrographs


How do grass crops change the shape of a hydrograph

They increase infiltration and lead to subdued hydrographs


How do large numbers of animals affect the shape of a hydrograph

They impact soils leading to overland flows


What are some settlements built on that exacerbates the chance flashy hydrograph

Flood plains


What does urban growth lead to

The expansion of built-up, impermeable surfaces such as roads, car parks, shopping centres.


How does growth of urban areas and impermeable surfaces affect the shape of a hydrograph

Most settlements are designed to transfer water as quickly as possible away from human activity to the nearest river.
Impermeable surfaces due to the increase in the built environment.
Some settlements are built on flood plains.


How is the transfer of water away from urban environments to rivers done

Through road camber, building design and drainage systems.


In many cities in the UK what has there been a continued loss of

Front gardens in favour of paved drives


Why was a vegetated garden equivalent to 300ha/year lost in London between 1998-2006

Due to the growing number of two-three car families


Why are rivers altered in urban areas

To move the water rapidly away from the urban area


What do some soft engineering flood managment schemes attempt to reduce

Flashiness in a rivers hydrograph


How does water abstraction alter the shape of a hydrograph

It reduces base flow so more water must reach the channel before it reaches bankfull capacity


Where contains the worlds largest continuous tropical forest and Savannah ecosystems

Tropical South America


What do deforestation and forest degradation result in

A complex set of changes to streams of all sizes


When forests are removed what are the knock on effects

The new vegetation has fewer leaves and shallow roots.
Means it uses less water than the forest it replaces.
Results in less water evaporating from the land surface to be returned to the atmosphere; more water runs off the land and stream flow is increased.


What does the amount of change that occurs because of deforestation depend on

Local conditions including the amount of rainfall, how much of a watershed is deforested, topography, soils and the land use after deforestation


What have studies shown about the effect of a deforested basin

Little effect with less than 20% of a basin deforested but a large increase with 50-100% of a basin deforested. These changes occur at the local scale, but rivers of all sizes are affected when deforestation is extensive.


What does the effect of localised deforestation suggest about the climate, land surface and water cycle

If deforestation does not decrease rainfall via atmosphere feedbacks, discharge with likely be significantly increased through other parts of the rainforest.
If rainfall does decrease via atmospheric feedbacks the resulting decrease in river discharge may be greater than the chanted without feedbacks.
Changes in water resources caused by atmospheric feedbacks will not be limited to those catchment areas where deforestation has occurred but will be spread unevenly throughout the whole Amazon basin by atmospheric circulation.


What does subsurface drainage remove

Excess water from the soil profile


How is subsurface drainage usually carried

Through a network of perforated tubes installed 60-120cm below the soil surface. These tubes are commonly called 'tiles' because they were originally made from short lengths of clay pipes known as tiles


How do tiles work as subsurface drainage

Water would seep into the small spaces between the tiles and drain away.
When water table in the soil is higher than the tile, water flows into the tubing, either through holes in the plastic tubes or through the small cracks between adjacent tiles. This lowers the water table to the depth of the tiles over the course of several days.


Why is the most common type of 'tile' used in surface drainage

Corrugated plastic tubing with small perforations to allow water entry


What do drain tiles allow excess water to do

Leave the field


WhT happens when the water table has been lowered to the elevation of the tiles

No more water flows through the tiles


In most years in the UK, what months have drain tiles not flowed between

June and October


What is the effects of extensive deforestation on the water cycle

Positive feedback can occur. During localised deforestation much of the water leaves the area in the river channel rather than being recycled continuously between the forest and the atmosphere. Once the water has left the area there is less water valour available in the atmosphere for precipitation and so precipitation levels fall. Less water gets to the river channel and the flow is reduced.


When is agricultural drainage very good

For moderately to poorly drained soils


What does soil drainage help increase

The productivity of the field and improves the efficiency of growers


What did a study by Ohio State university demonstrate

That for every dollar spent on drainage the growers got back between $1.20 and $1.90 when growing corn and soybeans


What are 5 advantages of draining marginal farmland

The build up of an improved soil structure.
Improved aeration.
Increased aeration increase the ease with which the soil can be warmed.
Heavy machinery can work on the land.
Large numbers of animals can graze on the land.


How is the build up of an improved soil structure an advantage to draining marginal farm land

It makes it more friable and easier to work. It
makes it easier to achieve greater root penetration, enabling roots to travel faster and further.


How is the improved aeration an advantage to draining marginal farm land

It makes the conditions more favourable for microorganisms to thrive. This increase the rate at which organic matter is broken down into humus and plant nutrients are mineralised into an available form. Also provides the necessary supply of air for root cell respiration.


How is the ease of which the soil can be warmed an advantage to draining marginal farm land

This can make possible earlier sowing of seeds, with greater likelihood of improved germination


How is the ability of heavy machinery working on the land and large number of animals allowed to graze an advantage to draining marginal farm land

There's no danger of compaction (which would lead to increased overland flow)


What are the 3 disadvantages of draining marginal farmland

The insertion of drains artificially increase the speed of throughflow in the soil.
The dry topsoil can be subject to wind erosion if not properly protected.
Nitrate loss.


How is the increased speed of throughflow in the soil a disadvantage of draining marginal farmland

Much more water reaches watercourses more quickly than before drainage. This can increase the likelihood of flooding and increase the range of flows in the river.m


Before the drainage of many flood plains in the UK from the eighteenth century onwards, what was the annual flow regime of rivers

More even due to rivers being more navigable then


How is the dry top soil being subject to wind erosion a disadvantage of draining marginal farmland

Top soil can dry out in periods of low rainfall. Dry soil can be blown away. Nitrates from fertilised are easily carried and can get into water courses and wetlands


What has soil loss by wind erosion been mainly documented for

Sandy and peaty soils


Where has soil loss by wind erosion been mainly documented

In the eastern and middle counties of England, especially arable fields in the East Midlands and East Anglia


What is the area of England and Wales subject to

Small wind erosion in some areas which get more severely eroded than by water erosion


What is the estimate for wind erosion rate in England and Wales

0.1 to 2tonnes/ha/year, although maximum values for fields can be one or two orders of magnitude higher


How is nitrate loss a disadvantage of draining marginal farmland

It can lead to eutrophication. Water draining from fields finds its way into local water courses. There is enriched ponds with nitrogen of phosphorus. It causes algae and higher forms of plant life to grow too fast. This disturbs the balance of organisms present in the water and the quality of the water concerned


What is a way to overcome the problems associated with draining marginal farm land

To use controlled drainage as this keeps the water table high during the off-season when crops are not growing.


What does a high water table increase

The rate of denitrification and reduces nitrate loss to the environment


What is denitrification

A process that converts nitrate to harmless nitrogen gas as soon as the saturated soil warms up in the spring


When can problems with the demand for water occur

When the demand exceeds the amount available during a certain period


Where does water deficit usually occur

In areas with low rainfall and high population density, and/ or in areas with intensive agricultural of industrial activity


In Europe what is the dominant source of fresh water



What are the consequences of water being pumped from beneath the ground faster than it is being replenished

Sinking water tables, empty Well's, higher pumping costs and in coastal areas the intrusion of salt water from the sea which degrades the groundwater


Where is saline intrusion into groundwater widespread along

The Mediterranean coastlines of Italy, Spain and Turkey because the demands of tourist resorts are the major cause of over-abstraction


In Malta, why has the country has to resort to expensive desalination plants

Because most groundwater can no longer be used for domestic consumption or irrigation because of saline intrusion


Why can sinking water tables make rivers less reliable

Many river flows are maintained in the dry seasons by springs that dry up when water tables fall


What does groundwater help to sustain

Surface reservoirs of water such as lakes and wetlands that are often highly productive ecosystems and resources for tourism as well as leisure activites


What is the main cause of groundwater over-exploitation in agricultural areas



How is the water within the chalk aquifer of southern England replenished

By rainfall that lands on the exposed chalk hills of the North and South Downs and Chilterns


When does recharge of the chalk aquifer talk place in southern England

During the winter months when potential evapotranspiration is low and soil moisture deficits are negligible


How do groundwater amounts vary seasonally in southern England

Levels rising from Autumn through winter into spring. During the summer months PET generally exceeds rainfall, soil moisture deficits build up and little percolation takes place


In the summer how does water still leave the chalk in southern England

From springs as well as by abstraction from bore holes


Why is the pattern of water abstraction from the chalk of southern England not constant

Since rainfall varies both over time and locations


What can rivers that are fed by groundwater from chalk aquifers in southern England have

Intermittent sections. These streams, often referred to as 'bournes', are a natural characteristic of chalk downlands


How do the position of springs feeding rivers fed by groundwater from chalk aquifers in southern England differ throughout the year

They are at greater altitude in winter and spring


What could happen in southern England if there are one or more dry winters when the effective rainfall available for recharge is low

These rivers can dry up all together


Where have some of the most actuate problems with over-abstraction been found

In chalk stream systems, where up to 95% of the flow is derived from aquifers


What do the catchments of chalk streams provide

Underground reservoirs of generally high quality groundwater which can be abstracted for public supply


What has abstraction for public water supply and industry dramatically reduced

The flow in many chalk streams, and in some cases, completely dried up sections of these important rivers, particularly during dry summers when public demand is at its highest.


What does water abstraction have an economic impact on

Local communities, resulting from the inability to fish, enjoy river views due to encroaching vegetation or undergo other recreational activities


How does the subsurface geology of the London basin store water

Chalk layers form a syncline beneath the London area.
Precipitation on these exposed chalk hills soak into the porous chalk where it is stored and released naturally at springs where it is in contact with either Greensand or Palaeogene rocks.


Throughout history in London how has water been abstracted

From wells and boreholes that penetrate down into the chalk


In the London basin, during the ninteeth century and first part of the twentieth century, what has been increasingly exploited

The chalk-basal sands aquifer


Why has the chalk-basil sand aquifer in the London basin been increasingly exploited

As a result of increased industrialisation and the associated development of groundwater sources


When was the peak of water abstraction in the London basin

The 1960s


During the peak of water abstraction of the London basin in the 1960s how much did the groundwater levels beneath central London dropped to

88m below sea level, creating a large depression in the water table


Where did a smaller cons of depression develop becsuse of the exploitation of the London basin in 1960

The river Roding In Essex


Since the mid-1960s what happened to industries such as brewing in central London

They were relocated or closed down


In the 1960s what did economic activity turn more to

Service industries and commerce than heavy industry


What did the subsequent reduction in abstraction because of industries being closed in London in 1960s result in

Groundwater levels recovering by as much as 3m/year in places by the early 1990s, leading to a gradual rebound of the water table


What was the threat posed becsuse of the recovering groundwater levels in the London basin in 1990

Rising groundwater to structures in the London basin such as the London Underground and building foundations


What did the threat of rising groundwater to structures in the London basin lead to

The implementation of the General Aquifer Research, Development and Investigstion Team (GARDIT) strategy to control levels


Why does 2000 provide a useful baseline year for comparisons for the London Basin

Because as a result of careful management of both abstraction and artificial recharge the rise in groundwater that the GARDIT strategy was designed to arrest had largely been achieved by 2000


What were the four differences in groundwater levels for January 2000 and January 2014 for the London Basin

Levels in west London have risen due to limited abstraction, 4 to 8 metres since 2000 which has levelled off in recent years.
Central and easy London levels have fallen in the order of 5-7m since 2000 as a result of increased abstraction.
Levels have fallen more than 2m across much of south London, with falls of up to 12m concentrated around the many large public water supply abstractions.
East London, there are chalk outcrops around the River Thames from Greenwich to Woolwich, there's a risk of saline intrusion. When groundwater levels near the river are lower than the water levels in the Thames, saline river water can enter the chalk aquifer.


Where is carbon found

In all life forms in addition to sedimentary rocks,diamonds, graphite, coal and petroleum


What is the carbon cycle

Complex process carbon undergoes as it is transformed from organic carbon like plants and trees to inorganic carbon and back again


Why is it that the carbon cycle means we can study energy flows on earth

Most of the chemical energy needed for life is stored in organic compounds as bonds between carbon atoms and other atoms


What are 5 important examples of carbon compounds

Carbon dioxide
Calcium carbonate


What is carbon dioxide (CO2)

Gas found in the atmosphere, soils and oceans


What is methane (CH4)

Gas found in the atmosphere, soils and oceans and sedimentary rocks


What is calcium carbonate (CaCO3)

Solid compound found in calcareous rocks, oceans and in the skeletons and shells of ocean creatures


What are hydrocarbons

Solids, liquids or gases usually found in sedimentary rocks


What are bio-molecules

Complex carbon compounds produced in living things. Proteins, carbohydrates, fats and oils, and DNA are examples


Why do we study carbon dioxide

It is thought to have a profound effect on climate


Why is it difficult to separate a natural carbon cycle from one that is affected by human acirivrtn

Human activity and associated emissions of carbon dioxide (anthropogenic CO2) fundamentally affect the carbon cycle and so affect climate


What is the primary source of carbon

The earths interior as it was stored in the mantle when the earth was formed


Where does carbon dioxide in the earths interior escape from

Constructive and destructive plate boundaries and hot-spot volcanoes


Where is much of the CO2 released at destructive plate margins derived from

The metamorphism of carbonate rocks sub-ducting with the ocean crust


What happens to carbon in the atmosphere when it’s released from earths mantle

Some remains in the atmosphere as CO2.
Some dissolves in the ocean.
Some is held as biomass in living or dead and decaying organisms.
Some bound in carbonate rocks.


How is carbon removed into long-term storage

By burial of sedimentary rock layers, especially coal and black shales and carbonate rocks like limestone (calcium carbonate)


What carbon does black shale store

Store organic carbon from undecaying biomass


What is the unit to measure the amount of carbon in a store

Gigatonne (GtC)
(1 Gt amounts to 1 billion tonnes)


Who measures carbon using a gigatonne

The United Nations climate change panel and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)


How is flux of carbon within the cycle measured

Gigatonnes of carbon per year (GtC/year)


What is anthropogenic Co2

Carbon dioxide generated by human activity


What is the biosphere

Total sum of all living Matter


What is carbon sequestration

Capture of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or capturing anthropogenic carbon dioxide from large-scale stationary sources like power plants before it is released from the atmosphere. Once captured, the carbon is put into long term storage


What is a carbon sink

A store of carbon that absorbs more carbon than it releases


What is a greenhouse gas

Any gaseous compound in the atmosphere that is capable of absorbing infrared radiation, thereby trapping and holding heat in the atmosphere


What’s the lithosphere

The crust and the uppermost mantle; this constitutes the hard and rigid outer layer of the earth


What is weathering

The breakdown of rocks in situ by a combination of weather, plants and animals


What does the lithosphere include

The crust and the uppermost mantle; this constitutes the hard and rigid outer layer of the earth


What is the pedosphere

The uppermost part of the lithosphere, the layer that chemically reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere through the soil


Examples of inorganic deposits in the lithosphere

Fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas, shale (kerogens) and carbonate-based sedimentary deposits like limestone


Examples of organic forms of carbon in the lithosphere

Litter, organic matter and humic substances found in soils


What 4 stores is carbon in the lithosphere distributed between

Marine sediment and sedimentary rock.
Soil organic matter.
Fossil fuel deposits.


How much carbon is stored in marine sediments and sedimentary rock

Up to 100 million GtC


How much carbon is stored in soil organic matter

Between 1,500 and 1,600 GtC


How much carbon is stored in fossil fuel deposits

Approximately 4,100 GtC


What is peat

Accumulation of Dead but undecayed organic matter found in boggy areas called peatlands or mired


How much carbon is stored in peat

Approximately 250 GtC


Who has attempted to collate measurements of the amount of carbon in the oceans

The Global Ocean Data Analysis project (GLODAP)


How do GLODAP try to measure the amount of carbon in the ocean

Using data from respect ships, commercial ships and buoys. The measurements come from deep and shallow waters from all the ocean - some variations in the results and figures can into be an approximation


What can the oceanic store be divided into

The surface layer
The intermediate
Living organic matter


What is the surface layer oceanic stores

Euphotic zone.
Sunlight penetrates so that photosynthesis can take place


How much carbon is stored in the euphoric zone of oceanic stores

Approx 900 GtC


What is the intermediate zone of oceanic stores

The twilight zone.
The deep layer of water


How much carbon is stored in the twilight zone

Approx 37,100 GtC


What is the living organic matter in an oceanic store

Fish, plankton, bacteria etc


How much carbon is stored in organic matter in oceanic stores

Approx 30 GtC in living organic matter and 700 GtC in dissolved organic matter


What is the total amount of stored oceanic carbon

Between 37,000 and 40,000 GtC


How does carbon get locked up for millions of years in the hydrosphere

When organisms die, their dead cells, shells and other parts sink into deep water. Some material sinks right to the bottom and where it forms layers of carbon rich sediment. Over millions of years chemical and physical processes may turn these sediments into rocks because of burial by overlying layers of sediment. It can eventually turn these sediments into sedimentary limestone


What is the total amount of carbon stored in the terrestrial biosphere

3,170 GtC


What does the distribution of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere depend upon

The ecosystem


Examples of how much of the total terrestrial carbon is stored in different ecosystems

Temperature grassland: 10%
Tropical savanna: 8%
Tropical rainforest: 20%
Temperate forests: 7%
Boreal forests: 26%
Agriculture: 9%
Wetlands: 7%
Tundra: 8%
Desert: 5%


What are the 5 stores of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere

Living vegetation
Plant litter
Soil hummus


What percentage of the carbon in the earths biosphere is stored in plants



Where is much of the carbon in plants stored

Directly in the tissues of the plants. However, although the exposed part of the plant is the most visible, the below ground biomass (root system) must also be considered


What does the amount of carbon in the biomass of plants vary between

35 and 65% of the dry weight


What does the amount of carbon in plants vary depending on

Location and vegetation type


Where does an estimated half of all carbon in forests occur in

High-latitude forests


Where does an estimated 1/3 of carbon in forests occur

Low-latitude forests


What are the two largest forest reservoirs of carbon and what percentage of the worlds forest carbon do they contain

Vast expanses in Russia which hold roughly 25% of the worlds forests carbon and the Amazon basin which contains about 20%


What is plant litter

Fresh, undecomposed and easily recognisable (by species and type) plant debris which can be anything from leaves, cones, needles, twigs, barks, seeds/nuts etc


What is plant litter directly affect by

The type of ecosystem


What percentage of litter in forests does leaf tissue account for



What does woody litter tend to increase with

The forests age


Why is the annual fall of litter low in grass land

There is very little above ground perennial tissue


What does soil humus originate from

Litter decomposition


What is humus

A thick brown or black substance that remains after most of the organic litter has decomposed


How does humus get dispersed throughout the soil

By soil organisms such as earthworks


Approximately what percentage of carbon in all types of forests is stored in biomass



Approximately what percentage of carbon in all types of forests is stored in soil



What are the different types of forest



In tropical forests what approximately what percentage of carbon is stored in biomass and in the trees

50% in biomass and 50% in soil


Altogether what does the worlds soil hold more of than vegetation

Carbon (2,500 GtC)


How much carbon is stored in organic soil

1,550 GtC


How much carbon is stored in inorganic soil

950 GtC


What does inorganic carbon component consist of

Carbon itself as well as carbonate materials such as calcite, Dolomites and gypsum


What is the amount of carbon found in living plants relatively small in comparisons to

That found in soil (560 GtC)


Approximately, how much larger is the soil carbon pool compared to the atmospheric pool

3.1 times larger


What is a larger carbon store than soil

The ocean


How does peat form

In wetland conditions, where almost permanent water saturation obstruct flows of oxygen from the atmosphere into the ground. This created low oxygen anaerobic conditions that slow down rates of plant litter decomposition


How much of the land and freshwater surface of the planet does peatland cover

Over 4 million km^2 or 3%


Where does peatland occur

All continents, from the tropical to boreal and arctic zones and from sea level to high alpine conditions


How much carbon does peat store

250 GtC


What are animals important for in the carbon cycle

The movement of carbon throughout the cycle


When was the Cambrian period

Around 500 million years ago


When was the quaternary glaciation

Last 2 million years


What were atmospheric carbon dioxide levels in the Cambrian period

7,000 ppm (parts per million), very high values


What did the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels drop to during the quaternary period

It sank to about 180 ppm


Today, what are the estimated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels

They vary from 720GtC to 800GtC (400ppm)


What percentage of the earths atmosphere does carbon make up



Why is the present concentration of CO2 the higher than it has been for at least 800,000 years and in all likelihood the last 20 million years

Due to human activities particularly deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels


What does Co2 play a vital role in doing

Regulating the earths surface temperature


What has the recent phenomenon of global warming been attributed to

Increasing industrial CO2 emissions into earths atmosphere


Where has atmospheric carbon in measured at since 1958

Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) in Hawaii


Why is monitoring atmospheric carbon at MLO ideal

It has undisturbed air, it’s a remote location and there’s minimal influences of vegetation and human activity


What is the Mauna Loa Observatory part of

The American National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations (NOAA)


What do the measurements made by the MLO sho

The global annual mean concentration of Co2 in the atmosphere has increased markedly since the industrial revolution, from 280ppm to 317.7ppm in 1958 to 400.3 in 2015


What is the graph depicting changing carbon levels in the atmosphere called

The Keeling Curve


Who was one of the first scientists to gather evidence that linked fossil fuel emissions to rising levels of carbon dioxide



What can be used to gather data for what the concentration of carbon was in the past

Co2 trapped in ice cores from Antarctica and Greenland can be used to give a ‘proxy’ measure of the concentration in the atmosphere at the time the snow was laid down


When did the daily average measurement at MLO first exceed 400ppm



What is the rate carbon is increasing in the atmosphere as measured at MLO



When is a carbon store considered a net carbon sink

If more carbon enters a store than leaves it


When is a carbon store considered a net carbon source

If more carbon leaves a store than enters it


What is the geological component of the carbon cycle

Where it interacts with the rock cycle in the processes of weathering, burial, subduction and volcanic eruptions


In the atmosphere, how is carbon dioxide removed

By being dissolved in water and forming carbonic acid (H2CO3)


How does chemical weathering occur

Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is dissolved in water forming carbonic acid. As the weak acid water reaches the surface as rain, it reacts with minerals at the earths surface, slowly dissolving them into their component irons


What are component ions broken down by chemical weathering carried in

Surface waters like streams and rivers and eventually they are carried to the ocean


When component ions are transported to the ocean what can happen

They settle as minerals like calcite, a form of calcium carbonate


What is calcium carbonate precipitated from

Calcium and bicarbonate ions in sea water by marine organisms like foraminifera, coccoliths or molluscs


How does coral extract calcium carbonate from sea water

They live and eventually die in the same location. Dead coral is built upon by later generations of live coral and so it too becomes buried. The carbon is now stored below the sea floor in layers of limestone


What can expose buried limestone on the sea floor

Tectonic uplift


Example of tectonic uplift exposing limestone

In the Himalayas where some of the worlds highest peaks are formed of material that was once at the bottom of the sea


What do tectonic forces cause

Plate movement to push the sea floor under continental margins in the process of subduction


What would carbon rich material on the sea floor be classed as

The carbonaceous sea-floor depositors


How can carbon dioxide that was once trapped on the sea floor return to the atmosphere

The carbonaceous sea-floor deposits are pushed deep into the earth where they heat up, eventually melt, and fan rise back up to the surface through volcanic eruptions or in seeps, vents and Co2 rich hot springs


What do weathering, burial, subduction and volcanism control

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over time periods of hundreds of millions of years


What is photosynthesis

Using energy from sunlight to combine carbon dioxide from the atmosphere with water to form carbohydrates to store energy.


What’s a by-product of photosynthesis



What turns carbon into organic matter by the process of photosynthesis

Tiny marine plants (phytoplankton) in the sunlit surface waters (the euphotic zone) of the oceans as well as all terrestrial plants, photosynthetic algae and bacteria


What is the equation for photosynthesis

Co2 + H2O + sunlight -> carbohydrate + oxygen


How does respiration occur

Plants (and photosynthetic algae and bacteria) use the stored carbohydrates as an energy source to carry out their functions


What do consumers like animals and bacteria get their energy from

Excess biomass as some of the carbohydrates remain as biomass (the bulk of the plant etc)


When oxygen from the atmosphere is combined with carbohydrates what happens

It liberated the stored energy


What is the equation for respiration

Oxygen + carbohydrate -> energy + water + carbohydrate


What is photosynthesis the opposite of

Respiration - photosynthesis removed Co2 from the atmosphere and replaces it with O2.
Respiration takes O2 from the atmosphere to be replaced with Co2.


Why do the processes of respiration and photosynthesis not balance the atmosphere

Not all organic matter is oxidised.
Some is buried in sedimentary rocks.


What is the result because of the imbalance between photosynthesis and respiration

Over geological time, there has been more oxygen put into the atmosphere and carbon dioxide removed by photosynthesis than the reverse


What does decomposition include

Physical, chemical and biological mechanisms that transform organic matter into increasingly stable forms. The broad definition includes physical break up of organic material by wet-dry, shrink-well, hot-cold and other cycles


What biological mechanisms are included in decomposition

Animals and plants. Feeding and digestion aided by the catalytic effect of enzymes


What are some important physical mechanisms that cause decomposition

Leaching and transport in water


What does chemical transformations in decomposition include

Oxidation and condensation


What carries out the decomposition process



What is the role of decomposers

To break down the cells and tissues in dead organisms into large bio molecules and then break those bio molecules down into smaller molecules and individual atoms


What does decomposition ensure

That the important elements of life - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, magnesium can all be continually recycled into the soil and made available for life


What does a plant need to make its DNA molecules

A supply of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur atoms from the soil in addition to the carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms it obtains through photosynthesis


What is plant growth limited by

The availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium and sulphur atoms in addition to the availability of carbon dioxide, water and light energy


What is vertical deep mixing

Important movement of CO2 in the ocean.
It occurs when warm water in oceanic surface currents is carried from the warm tropics to the cold polar regions.
Here the water is cooled, making it dense enough to sink below the surface layer, sometimes all the way to the ocean bed.
When cold water returns to the surface and warms up again, it loses carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.


What does vertical circulation in the ocean (vertical deep mixing) ensure

That carbon dioxide is constantly being exchanged between the ocean and the atmosphere


What leads to vertical deep mixing

Water is able to dissolve CO2. There is a negative correlation between temperature of the water and the amount of CO2 that can be dissolved. This leads to vertical deep mixing.


What does the virtual circulation of carbon in the ocean act an

An enormous carbon pump


What does the carbon pump in the ocean do

Gives the ocean a lot more carbon than it would have if the surface water was not being constantly replenished


What is the oceanic carbon pump

The concept of vertical deep mixing, where carbon dioxide is transported from the ocean surface to the ocean depths by sinking cold water in the high latitudes. If brought to the surface (for instance by upwelling) the cold water will warm up and release some of its carbon dioxide to the atmosphere


What is the biological pump

Living things in the ocean move carbon from the atmosphere into surface waters into rocks. This action of organisms moving carbon in one direction is called the biological pump


How does carbon get incorporated into marine organisms

As organic matter or structural calcium carbonate


What are animals that live in deep oceans called

Deep consumers


When does combustion occur

When any organic material is reacted (burned) in the presence of oxygen to give off the products of carbon dioxide, water and energy


What can the organic material in combustion be

Any vegetation or fossil fuel such as natural gas (methane), oil or coal


What do organic materials contain

At least carbon and hydrogen and may include oxygen


How do pollutant molecules get created

Organic materials with oxygen combine with other elements to form a variety of pollutant molecules


Examples of pollutant molecules

Sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides


What is biomass combustion

The burning of living and dead vegetation. It includes human-induced burning as well as naturally occurring fires


What 5 places does biomass combustion take place in

The boreal (northern) forests.
Savannah grasslands.
Tropical forests.
Temperate forests.
Agricultural waste after harvests


Where are boreal forests found

Alaska, Canada, Russia, China and Scandinavia


Where are savannah grasslands found

In Africa


Where are tropical forests found

In Brazil, Indonesia, Colombia, Ivory Coast, Thailand, Laos, Nigeria, Philippines, Burma and Peru


Where are temperature forests found

US and Western Europe


Where is agricultural waste harvested

In the US and Western Europe


What is the life cycle of forests

Trees die after severe fire, setting the stage for new growth to begin.


If a forest fully replaces itself, what will be the net carbon change

There won’t be a change over the life cucleand


What percentage of the carbon in the atmosphere does biomass consumption consume

About 10-20% but immediately emits it back to the atmosphere


What is the balance between simultaneous production and decomposition in biomass consumption

New trees grow (storing carbon), old trees decompose (emitting carbon) and the organic layer of the soil accumulated (storing carbon)


What does the balance between simultaneous production and decomposition in biomass consumption determine

Whether the forest is a net source or sink


Left alone, what does terrestrial and atmospheric carbon do

They stay more or less in balance


What can change a carbon balance in a forest

Increasingly large/or more frequent fires, possibly made worse by warming temperatures and preoccupation levels


Every year, how much of earths land surface does fire burn

3-4 million km^2


How much carbon dioxide does fire release into the atmosphere annually

More than a billion tonnes of carbon


What are massive old-growth northern latitudes forests considered a carbon sink

Because older trees are repositories of decades or centuries of carbon; their heavy canopy blocks sunlight from reaching the forest floor, slowly decomposing the forest litter


What type of forest is also considered a carbon sink

Massive old-growth northern latitude forest


What has the United States Geological Survey (USGS) state

The carbon dioxide released in recent volcanic eruptions has never caused detectable global warming of the atmosphere


What are the two reasons that recent volcanic eruptions have not caused detectable global warming of the atmosphere

The warming effect of emitted CO2 is counterbalanced by the large amount of sulphur dioxide that is given out.
The amounts of carbon dioxide released have not been enough to produce detectable global warming.


How is the warming effect of emitted CO2 is counterbalanced by the large amount of sulphur dioxide that is given out in a volcanic eruption

Conversion of this sulphur dioxide to sulphuric acid, which forms fine droplets, increases the reflection of radiation from the sun back into space, cooling the earths lower atmosphere


Example of how The amounts of carbon dioxide released in volcanic eruptions have not been enough to produce detectable global warming

All studies to date of global volcanic Co2 emissions indicate that present-day sub-aerial and submarine volcanoes have released less than 1% of the Co2 released by human activities


What has been proposed about volcanic activity in the past

Intense volcanic release of carbon dioxide in the deep geological past did cause a large enough increase in atmospheric Co2 to cause a rise in atmospheric temperatures and possibly some mass extinctions, thigh this is a topic for scientific debate


What do dead plants and animals turn into following burial

Fossil fuels


How do dead plants or animals turn into fossil fuels

Pressure from multiple layers of sediment leads to an anoxic environment that allows for decomposition to take place without oxygen.
When this is combined with heat from the earth, the carbon in sugar molecules is rearranged to form other compounds.


What is an oxygen free environment called



What are animal remains likely to form following burial

Petroleum (crude oil)


What is plant matter likely to form following burial

Coal and natural gas


How do fossil fuels release carbon into the atmosphere

When they are extracted and burnt, carbon dioxide and water are released into the atmosphere


How does cement manufacture contributes CO2 to the atmosphere

When calcium carbonate is heated, producing lime and carbon dioxide.
CO2 is also produced by burning the fossil fuels that provide the heat for the cement manufacture process.


What is the estimation for what percentage of global anthropogenic Co2 the cement industry produces

Of which 50% is produced from the chemical process itself and 40% from burning fuel to power the process.


What is the amount of CO2 emitted by the cement industry in kg

More than 900kg of Co2 for every 1000kg of cement produced


In 2013, what were global emissions due to fossil fuel use and cement production

36 GtC


When is the Kyoto Protocol reference year



In 2013, how much higher was global Co2 emission due to fossil fuel use and cement productions in 1990



In 2013, how much higher was global Co2 emission due to fossil fuel use and cement productions in 2012



Which counties dominated the Co2 emissions because of fossil fuel use and cement production

China (28%)
USA (14%)
India (7%)
European Union (10% but their states were in an overall 1.8% decline)


How many states in the EU



What is the 2013 Co2 emissions breakdown (fossil fuel and cement production only)

Coal - 43%
Oil - 33%
Gas - 18%
Cement - 5.5%
Gas flaring from oil wells - 0.6%


How is carbon lost to the atmosphere because of farming practices

When soil is ploughed, the soil layers invert, air mixed in, and soil microbial activity dramatically increases. It results in soil organic matter being broken down much more rapidly, and carbon is lost from the soil into the atmosphere


In addition to the effect on soil from ploughing, what else increases carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere in farm practices

Emissions from the farm tractors


What is the largest source of carbon emissions within agriculture

Enteric fermentation


What is enteric fermentation

When methane (CH4) is produced by livestock during digestion and released via belches


In 2011 what did enteric fermentation account for of the sectors total greenhouse gas outputs



What did carbon emissions from animals increase by between 2001 and 2011



What do greenhouse gases resulting from biological processes in rice paddies make up to of total agricultural emissions

10% (because of the generated methane)


What does the burning of tropical grasslands make up to of total agricultural emissions



What is FAO

United Nations Food And Agriculture Organisation


In 2011 what did FAO say if agriculture related greenhouse gas outputs

44% of them occurred in Asia, 25% by the Americas, 15% in Africa, 12% in Europe, 4% in Australasia


What has the regional distraction of agriculture-related greenhouse gas outputs been over the last decade



What does Co2 emissions from land use change (deforestation) account for of anthropogenic Co2 emissions



What is most deforestation driven by

The need for extra agricultural land


What is ‘slash and burn’ agriculture

Often subsistence farmers will clear a few hectares to feed their families by cutting down trees and burning them in this process


How does logging remove forest

Loggers, some of them acting illegally, built roads to access more and more remote forests which in turn leads to more deforestation.


What are the three main reasons deforestation occurs

Need for extra agriculture land.
Growing urban sprawl.


How is not all deformation intentional

Some is caused by a combination of human and natural factors like wildfires and subsequent overgrazing , which may prevent the re-establishment of young trees


How much of the worlds forests does the FAO estimate is cut down and conveyed to other land uses every year

13 million ha, an area roughly equivalent to the size of Greece


What has planting of trees resulted in

Forests being established or expanded on to abandoned agricultural land, this has reduced the net loss of total forest area


In the period 1990-2000 what was the world estimated to have suffered a net loss of forest in each year

8.9 million ha/year


In the period 2000-2005 what was the world estimated to have suffered a net loss of forest in each year

7.3 million ha/year


In the period 1990-2000 what percentage of the worlds forests did we lose



Presently, how much forest are we losing daily



What could happen at the current rate of deforestation

The worlds rainforests could completely vanish in a hundred years


When forests are cleared for conversion to agriculture or pasture what may release carbon into the atmosphere

If a large proportion of the above-ground biomass is burned it would rapidly release most of its carbon into the atmosphere


Why may deforested wood sometimes preserve carbon

If the wood is used as a wood product and not burned


What does forest clearing accelerate

The decay of dead wood, litter and below-ground organic carbon


How can forestlands quickly become barren deserts

Forest soils are moist, but without the shade from tree cover they dry out quickly. Trees also help maintain the water cycle by returning water vapour back into the atmosphere through transpiration but without the trees to full these roles, they can become deserts


How much of the worlds population lives in urban areas

Over half of the population


By 2030, what is the urban population expected to reach as a proportion of global population

60% with urban areas growing at a rate of 1.3 million people every week


As cities grow, what happens to land use

It changes from either natural vegetation or agriculture to one which is built up


How does urban growth increase CO2 emissions

They result from energy consumption for transport, industry and domestic use, added to the CO2 emitted in the cement manufacture required for all the buildings and infrastructure


What is a city

A metropolitan area above 0.5 million


In 2012 what percentage of global carbon emissions were cities responsible for



Under a business-as-usual scenario, what is the percentage of global carbon emissions that cities are responsible for predicted to increase to in 2030



What is the distribution of emissions in cities similar to

Population and economic output


Examples of the distribution of emissions in cities

21 highest emitting cities contribute 10% of global energy-related Caron emissions, 64 cities contributing 20% and 139 cities contributing 30%


In total, what are cities projected to be responsible for of the global increase in carbon emissions during the period 2012-2030

56%, with 10 cities contributing 10% of global emissions growth, 28 cities contributing 20% and 198 contributing 50%


What is the process of carbon sequestration

Involves capturing Co2 from the atmosphere and putting it into long-term storage


What are the two primary types of carbon sequestration

Geologic sequestration
Terrestrial or biological sequestration


What is the process of geologic sequestration

Co2 is captured at urs source (for example a power plant) and then objected in liquid form into stored underground. These could be deleted oil and gas reservoirs, thin, uneconomic coal seams, deep salt formations and the deep experimental


What is the stage that geologic sequestration is at

The experimental stage


Why is the ocean capable of absorbing more additional carbon than terrestrial systems

Simply because of its sheer size


What is an advantage of ocean carbon sequestration

The carbon sequestered is quite literally ‘sunk’ within weeks or months of being captured from the air/water. Once it’s in the deep ocean it is in a circulation system commonly measured in thousands of years.


By the time carbon reaches the sea bed what has it entered

The earths geologic cycle


What does terrestrial/biological sequestration involve

The use of plants to capture Co2 from the atmosphere and then to store it as carbon in the stems and roots of the plants as well as in the soil


What is the aim of terrestrial sequestration

To develop a set of land management practices that maximises the amount of carbon that remains stored in the soil and in plant material for the long term


What do most authorities believe about the enrichment of plant ecosystems

It’s a positive environmental action with many associated benefits, including the enrichment of wildlife


What are the disadvantages to terrestrial sequestration

A forest planted to capture carbon might lose that carbon back to the air in a catastrophic forest fire or if the forest suffers disease or infestation.
Also land-based sequestration plantations are slow growing and require active monitoring and management for the lifetime of the plantation, usually many decades. The carbon within those systems is never removed permanently from the atmospheric system.


100 million years ago what was the carbon dioxide value in the atmosphere

The exact value is in doubt. But it was many times higher than it is now


500 million years ago what was the values of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

20 times higher than present values


Timeline of carbon levels in the atmosphere

500 million years ago: 20 times higher than present levels
It dropped
200 million years ago: 4-5 times present levels
100 million years ago: exact value is in doubt but it was many times higher than today
Pre-industrial time: levels have been following a slow decline until now


What is the only way to calculate the effects of the changing levels of carbon

Is to build a computer model


Why is a computer model the only way to calculate the effects of changing levels of carbon

They can have between 50 and 100 interacting equations describing all the different processes of the carbon cycle. The result of this is that models only predict possibilities not probabilities


What has the impact of increasing atmospheric CO2 on the land been subject to

Intense research


Why has research on the impact of increasing atmospheric Co2 been unclear so far

They’ve only been over a relatively short time period, this is coupled to the fact that there are so many other variables that could have an impact on the land and the atmosphere


What has current research estimated about how much permafrost is in the Northern Hemisphere

1,672 GtC


How much could temperature increase by if 10% of the permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere were to melt

0.7*C by 2100


What are many of the observed physical and chemical changes in the ocean consistent with

Increasing atmospheric CO2 and a warming climate


Why are many of the causative links to climate change not very well understood

Because of the complex nature of the chemistry and biochemistry and the oceans and its inhabitants


What parts of the impact of Co2 on oceans is difficult to predict

The precise rate, magnitude and direction of change of Co2 uptake and how that affects acidity, salinity, storminess and nutrient enrichment. It is even more difficult to map these effects at a local scale


Once 1960s, what has happened to CO2 being taken up by plants

It has increased.
25% of emissions removed by plants


What has increased temperatures led to

An increase in the length of the growing season. More plant growth and higher evapotranspiration rates require more water. So growth is limited by water availability


What have increased temperatures warmed up

The land. In the Tundra areas warming of the land increased the rate of decay of accumulated dead organic matter leading to the release of CO2, methane etc


What has agriculture become because of land use decisions

More intensive. More crops from less land increases CO2 take up


What does more Co2 available in the atmosphere result in

More photosynthesis and plant growth. This is called ‘carbon fertilisation’. Growth limits reached when available water and nutrient limits are reached


What happened to farmland in mid-latitudes abandoned in the early twentieth century

Farmland was replaced by trees which store much more carbon than crops


What happens because of wildfires being extinguished

Leads to a build up of woody material that stores carbon. Fires and deforestation elsewhere has led to increased atmospheric CO2


About what percent of the Co2 that has been related into the atmosphere has been diffused unto the ocean



Through what process does CO2 get dissolved into the ocean

Direct chemical exchange


What does dissolved carbon dioxide in the ocean create

Carbonic acid


What does carbonic acid in the ocean cause

The slightly alkaline ocean to become a little less alkaline


Since 1750s how much has the PH of the oceans surfaces dropped by

0.1, a 30% change in acidity


While the impact of ocean acidification is largely unknown, what is the exception

Coral reefs


What two ways does ocean acidification affect marine organisms

The shells of animals end up being thinner and more fragile.
Fall in marine biodiversity.


How does ocean acidification result in shells of marine animals being thinner and more fragile

Carbonic acid reacts with carbonate ions in the water to form bicarbonate.
However, those same carbonate ions are what animals like coral and many plankton speeches need to create their calcium carbonate shells.
With less carbonate available, the animals need to expend more energy to build these shells resulting in thinner and fragile ones.


How many people worldwide do coral reefs provide food and livelihood security to

500 million


How does significant reef loss and subsequent fall in biodiversity threaten the survival of coastal communities

Through reduced food availability and a reduced capacity of coastlines to buffer the impact of sea level rise, including increased storm surges


What are polar and sub-polar marine ecosystems projected to be low in, within this century

Carbonate ions


What may happen because of the polar and sub-polar marine ecosystems becoming low in carbonate ions

The waters may actually become corrosive to unprotected shells and skeletons of organisms currently living there


In 2007 what happened to farmed oyster larvae off the coast of Oregon and Washington

They began dying by the millions. It was found that these losses were directly linked to ocean acidificstiin


Example of the rise in acidity and subsequent oyster crash taking a significant toll on coastal communities

From 2005 to 2009 lost production cost millions of dollars in lost sales


What did further research into ocean acidification show

Evidence of acidic sea water rising up from the ocean depths and that the water rising up from the ocean depths and that the water rising from the deep ocean today holds Co2 absorbed approximately 30-50 years ago


Who is the chief hatchery scientist for Taylor Shellfish Farms

Benoit Eudeline


What did Benoit Eudeline liken the current ocean acidification problem to

Sitting on a ticking time bomb


What is a more optimistic view point on the effects of ocean acidification

The more acidic sea water is, the better is dissolved calcium carbonate rocks (chalk and limestone). Over time this reaction will allow the ocean to soak up excess Co2 because the more acidic water will dissolve more rocks, release more carbonate ions and increase the oceans capacity to absorb Co2


What could warmer oceans (a product of climate change) affect

The abundance of phytoplankton which grows better in cool, nutrient rich waters.


What could be the effect of a decreased amount of phytoplankton

It could limit the oceans ability to take carbon from the atmosphere through the biological carbon pump and lessen the effectiveness of the oceans as a carbon sink


What is essential for plant and phytoplankton growth

Carbon dioxide


How may an increase in Co2 in the oceans help phytoplankton

It could increase their growth by fertilising those few species of phytoplankton and ocean plants like sea grasses that take carbon dioxide directly from the water


What does ocean warming kill off

The symbiotic algae which coral needs in order to grow, leading to bleaching and eventual death of reefs


In the last 35 years what have satellites monitoring sea ice in the Arctic measured

It’s retreat at 40%


How is sea ice melting part of a feedback mechanism

Because the highly reflective ice is replaced by more heat absorbent water. When it starts to melt the ocean is able to absorb more sunlight, which in turn amplifies the warming that caused it to melt in the first place


What does sea ice provide

A unique habitat for algae that appear in more concentrated forms and with more fat content in the ice


What does the loss of ice-bound algae affect

Marine predators all the way up the food chain, from krill and fish to seals, walruses and polar bears


How does melting sea ice affect polar bears

The loss of ice bound algae affects all the way up the food chain and they rely on sea ice to get to their main food source of seals and can no longer travel upon it


Where has there been an observed decrease in ocean salinity

In the deep North Atlantic


What is the decrease in ocean salinity in the deep North Atlantic probably caused by

Higher levels of precipitation and higher temperatures


How does ocean salinity affect the environment

The high levels of precipitation leads to higher river run-offs that eventually reach the sea. The higher temperatures are causing melting of the Greenland ice sheet and many alpine glaciers. This too will lead to an increase in fresh water reaching the ocean.


What have the changes in ocean salinity been linked to

A possible slowing down of the large scale oceanic circulation in the North-East Atlantic. This is turn will have an effect on climate of North West Europe


In summer and spring, the initial warming will cause ocean to absorb more heat. What will this lead to in autumn and winter

Warmer oceans -> larger ocean/atmosphere heat transfer in autumn -> warmer atmosphere in autumn -> formation of thinner ice in winter and slower formation and less ice in winter -> more open water and ice melt in summer


In winter, what does more open water lead to in spring and summer

Reduced albedo because ice is replaced by water -> more solar radiation absorbed by whole system -> ocean absorbs more heat


How long have global sea levels been more or less constant for

The last 5,000 years


What have studies of costal landforms show

They have been much lower in the past than they are today


What did the last glacial retreat lead to

A worldwide rise in sea levels about 10,000 years ago


What was the increase in sea levels rise in the last glacial retreat caused by

The melting of land-locked freshwater ice


What are the affects of ocean salinity on the Atlantic Ocean currents

Disruptions of Arctic conveyors means less warm water is drawn north and more flows south in the subtropical gyre


Since the 1990s, what has research indicated sea levels worldwide has been rising at a rate of

3.5 mom/year


What are the two causes of sea level rise

Melting of terrestrial ice.
Thermal expansion.


Why is the melting of terrestrial ice increasing

Persistently higher temperatures have led to an increased rate of summer melting as well as a drop in snowfall in the shorter winters.


What does the imbalance between increased summer melting and a drop in snowfall in the shorter winters results in

A significant net gain in water entering the oceans from rivers against evaporation from the ocean


Why are the massive ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland moving quickly towards the oceans

Due to the increased amount of meltwater lubricating their bases


What is thermal expansion

When water heats up, it expands


About how much of the last century’s rise in sea level is thought to be attributable to warmer oceans having greater volume and so occupying more space

About half


Have accurate measurements of thermal expansion been possible yet



If the earth continues to warm, how much can we expect the oceans to rise by 2100

Between 0.8 and 2m but this is not an exact science and there’s a range of predictions for rising sea levels


What is the enhanced greenhouse effect

The impact on the climate from the additional heat retained due to the increased amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that humans have released into the earths atmosphere since the industrial revolution


What is geo-sequestration

The technology of capturing greenhouse gas emissions from power stations and pumping them into underground reservoirs


What is radiative forcing

The difference between the incoming solar energy absorbed by the earth and energy radiated back to space


What is soil organic carbon

The organic constituents in the soil: tissues from dead plants and animals, products produced as these decompose and the soil microbial biomass


What percentage of the extra Co2 will remain in the atmosphere for thousands of years



What is Co2 important for

Controlling the earths temperature


Examples of greenhouse gases



How do greenhouse gases cause the greenhouse effect

They absorb a wide range of energy - including infrared energy emitted by the earth - and then re-emit it. The re-emitted energy travels out in all directions but some returns to Earth where it heats the surface


Without greenhouse gases, what would happen to the earth

It would be frozen at -180*C


With too many greenhouse gases, what would happen to the earth

It would be like Venus, where the greenhouse atmosphere keeps temperatures around 400*C


The greenhouse effect is good however what is the problem facing the earth

The enhanced greenhouse effect


What is radiative forcing

The concept is that energy is constantly flowing into the atmosphere in the form of sunlight that always shines on half of the earths surface. Some of this sunlight is reflected back to space and the rest is absorbed by the planet. Some of this absorbed energy is radiated back into the much colder surrounding space as infra red energy. If The balance between the incoming and the outgoing energy is anything other than zero there has to be some warming or cooling going on. The amount the earths energy budget is out of balance is called the radiative forcing.


What percentage of sunlight is reflected back to space in the enhanced greenhouse effect



If the radiative forcing is negative what effect would this have on the earth

THe earth would cool


What is radiative forcing used as a measure of

Recent human activity


What is radiative forcing measured in



What have studies shown about radiative forcing

That prior to 1750s, radiative forcing was negligible.


Since the 1750s why has radiative forcing increased

Because of increased greenhouse gas emissions and changing albedos because of land use change


Why is measuring the amount of actual radiative forcing difficult

Because of many complicating factors including natural changes in solar radiation and the effects of aerosols such as carbon particles from diesel exhausts


What is the current level of radiative forcing according to the IPCC

1.6 Watts/m^2 (with a range of uncertainty from 0.6 to 2.4)


What does 1.6 watts/m^2 amount to

A total of about 800 terawatts - more than 50 tines the worlds average rate of energy consumption


What is the worlds average rate of energy consumption

15 terawatts


If Co2 levels continue to rise at projected rates what will happen to the earth

It will become hotter, possibly hot enough to melt much of the existing ice cover


What are the projected surface temperatures changes from 1960 to 2060 as estimated by NASAs Global Climate Model

+10 in Antarctica
+ 6 in Oceania
+4/5 in Asia
+4 in Europe
+5/6 in Africa
+4/5 In South America
+4/7 in North America


Describe the greenhouse effect

Solar radiation passes through the clear atmosphere.
Some solar radiation is reflected by the atmosphere and earths surface.
Solar energy is absorbed by the earths surface and warms it and is converted into heat causing the emissions of long wave (infrared) radiation back into the atmosphere.
Surface also gains more heat and infrared radiation is emitted again.
Some of the infrared radiation is absorbed and re-emitted by the greenhouse gas molecules. The direct effect is the warming of the earths surface.
Some of the infrared radiation passed through the atmosphere and is lost in space.


Examples of elements that carbon bonds with to form complex molecules



Although there’s a lot of water on Earth, how much supports all life on land

A fraction of one percent


What is increasing pressure on our water

Climate change and growing populations


How does the increased emissions of Co2 lead to a positive feedback system

Increases the temperature resulting in higher evaporation rates and a wetter atmosphere, which leads to more warming


What percentage of the earths greenhouse effect is caused by carbon dioxide



What percentage of the earths greenhouse effect is caused by water vapour



What percentage of the earths greenhouse effect is caused by clouds



What causes the extra 5% of the greenhouse effect

Small particles (arosols) and minor greenhouse gases like methane


What happens when carbon dioxide concentrations rise

Air temperatures go up.
Oceans warm up and more water vapour evaporated into the atmosphere.
This amplifies greenhouse heating.


Why does Co2 set the temperature of the earth even though it contributes less to the overall greenhouse effect than water vapour

CO2 controls the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere and therefore the size of the enhanced greenhouse effect


Describe the impact of water and carbon on climate change showing a positive feedback

More Co2 from human activity acts as a greenhouse gas. -> global temperatures rise -> increased oceanic temperatures -> dissolved Co2 released by warmer oceans -> more Co2, water vapour, clouds and methane in atmosphere -> global temperatures rise -> warming tundra emits Co2 and methane -> more greenhouse gases -> global temperature rise -> increased oceanic temperatures -> more energy for evaporation for water evaporates from the oceans surface -> water goes back into atmosphere -> more greenhouse gases


Why will the earths temperature increase because of carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere

There is a time lag between the increase in Co2 and increased warming because the ocean soaks up heat


What will the earths temperature increase by because of carbon dioxide already in the atmosphere

Anther 0.6*C


What does climate change mitigation refer to

Rescue or prevent emissions of greenhouse gases


What are the 7 processes to mitigate climate change

Carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS).
Increased use of renewable energy.
Urban design.
Improving the aviation industry.
Changing rural land use.
Increase use of nuclear fuel.
Improved vehicle fuel efficiency.


Example of renewable energy

Wave and tidal power.
Wind power.
Solar energy.


Examples of how urban design can help mitigation

Sustainable urban transport system.
Waste management practices: capture landfill gas and recycling.
Building design: improved ventilation, green roofs, improved insulation.


Examples of changing rural land use to negate climate change

Afforestation and reformation Silviculture.
Changing agricultural methods e.g non-ploughing.


Examples of improving the aviation industry to mitigate climate change

Shorten flight time by efficient air traffic control.
Change of routes to reduce contrail formation.
Improved fuel efficiency.


How much CO2 emissions caused by the use of fossil fuels can CCS capture

Up to 90%


What does carbon capture and sequestration prevent

The carbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere


What are the three parts of the CCS chain

Capturing the Co2
Transporting the Co2
And securely storing the Co2


How does the capturing of the Co2 in CCS work

Capture technologies allow the separation of Co2 from gases produced in electricity generations and industrial processes by one of three methods


What are the three methods capturing technologies use to capture CO2

Pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion


How does the transporting part of CCS work

Transporting the Co2 by pipeline or by ship to the storage location: millions of tonnes of Co2 are already transported annually for commercial purposes by road tanker, ship and pipelines


How does the storing of the Co2 in CCS work

Co2 is converted into a high pressure liquid-like form known as ‘supercritical Co2’ which behaves like a runny liquid.
This supercritical Co2 is injected directly into sedimentary rocks.
Geochemical trapping mechanisms prevent the Co2 from escaping to the surface.


What an CCS systems be used to do

Extract a greater percentage of oil and gas out of existing reservoirs by the Co2 being objected under such pressure as to force the oil or gas out


What are the positives and negatives of trying to extract greater percentages of fossil fuels using CCS

It would partly pay for the CCS technology however it would also enhance the original problem by producing more fossil fuel for burning.


When Co2 is stored in deep geological formations what is it known as



During CCS where can the carbon dioxide be stored

underground in depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline aquifer formations or thin coal seams several kilometres below the surface or the deep ocean


What prevents the Co2 from escaping during CCS

Various physical (for example, impermeable ‘cap rock’) and geochemical trapping mechanisms


What is the disadvantage of storing captured Co2 in the ocean

The Co2 causes acidification of the oceans


What are the methods of ocean storage according to the IPCC

Co2 lakes offshore.
Sinking Co2 plumes.
Dispersal of Co2 by ship.


What is it called when liquified Co2 is injected into the ground to push more oil out of the ground

Enhanced oil recovery (EOR)


How can carbon stores be improved

By ensuring that carbon inputs to the soil are greater than carbon losses from it


What do strategies to improve carbon stores depend upon

Land use, soil properties, climate and land area


What are the three main rural land uses that can help improve carbon stores

Forested lands and tree crops.


What do grasslands offer a global greenhouse gas mitigation potential of

810 million tonnes of Co2


Where do grasslands store the carbon

Sequestered in the soil


What 4 ways can soil carbon storage in grasslands be improved

Avoidance of overstocking of grazing animals.
Adding manures and fertilisers.
Irritation and water management.


How does adding manures and fertilisers improve soil carbon storage in grasslands

They have a direct impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) levels through the added organic material.


What are the indirect benefits of using manures and fertilisers in grasslands

Increasingly plant productivity and stimulating soil biodiversity (for example earthworms that help degrade and mix the organic material)


How does revegetation improve soil carbon storage in grasslands

Especially using improved pasture species and legumes, can increase productivity, resulting in more plant litter and underground biomass, which can add to the SOC stock


How does irrigation and water management improve soil carbon storage in grasslands

Can improve plant productivity and the production of SOM


What are the 5 croplands techniques for increasing SOC

Reduced or no tillage.
Some use of animal manure.
Rotation of cash crops.
Using improved crop varieties.


How does mulching improve soil carbon storage in croplands

It adds organic matter. If crop residues are used, mulching also prevents carbon losses from the system


How does reduced no tillage improve soil carbon storage in croplands

(No ploughing or harrowing). It avoids the accelerated decomposition of organic matter and depletion of soil carbon that can other wise occur. It also prevents the break-up of soil aggregates that protect carbon


How does usage of animal manure or chemical fertilisers improve soil carbon storage in croplands

It can increase plant productivity and thus SOC


How does rotation of cash crops improve soil carbon storage in croplands

With pasture or the use of cover crops and green manures have the potential to increase biomass returner to the soil


How does using crop varieties improve soil carbon storage in croplands

Can increase productivity above and below ground, as well as increasing crop residues, thereby enhancing SOC


What are the 3 forested lands and tree crops techniques for increasing soil carbon storage

Protection of existing forests.
Reforesting degraded lands.
Trees in croplands.


How do forests store large stocks of carbon

Both above and below ground


How does protecting existing forests improve soil carbon storage in forested lands and tree crops

They preserve current soil carbon stocks


How does reforesting degraded land improve soil carbon storage in forested lands and tree crops

It increases tree density in degraded forests increasing biomass density and therefore carbon density, above and below ground


How does trees and orchards in croplands improve soil carbon storage in forested lands and tree crops

They can store carbon above and below ground. Co2 emissions can be reduced if they are grown as a renewable source of fuel


What is silviculture

Trees in croplands


According to the IPCC what are the percentages of the potential contribution of afforestation/ reforestation and agroforestry activities

Temperature afforestation/ reforestation: 31%
Temperature agroforestry: 2%
Boreal afforestation/ reforestation: 6%
Tropical agroforestry: 17%
Tropical afforestation/ reforestation: 44%


What is it important to note of mitigation schemes

That they have different and unwanted side effects


In 2013 how many passengers did the global aviation industry carry

3 billion


In 2013 how many tonnes of Co2 did the global aviation industry product

705 million tonnes


Example of the aviation industry making a major stride to reduce its production of Co2

The Airbus A380 and the Boeing 787 both use less than 3 litres of fuel per 100 passenger km


What does the EU Directorate General for Climate Action predicts

That by 2020 the global emissions of CO2 will be 70% more than in 2005 and could be 300 to 700% more by 2050


Why are the ways in which aviation practices can be improved have to be treated with caution

Because many of them are still at the aspirational or theoretical stage


What are the 3 ways to mitigate carbon dioxide within the aviation industry

Design and technology.
Movement management.
Flight management.


What are the 6 ways design and technology can be utilised to mitigate Co2 emissions in the aviation industry

Increased engine efficiency.
Increased use of biofuels.
Improved aerodynamics.
Reduced weight of aircrafts and engines.
Carbon capture within the engines.
Maximising the number of seats per aircraft.


What are the 3 ways movement management can be utilised to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in aviation practices

Towing aircraft while on the ground.
Avoiding circling, stacking, queuing etc.
Adopting fuel efficient routes.


What 3 ways can flight management be utilised to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the aviation industry

100% occupancy of seats.
Cruising at lower speed.
Matching an aircraft to the route.