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Aa Hodder Geography > Coasts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Coasts Deck (26):
1

What are coastal zones

Dynamic environment a with distributive landscapes formed by the interaction of a range of wind, marine and terrestrial processes

2

How much of the worlds population live on coastal plains

About 50%, with over 59% living within 150km of the sea

3

What kind of systems are coastal environments

Open systems

4

Example of feedback in a coastal system

Increased deposition on a beach but there is no corresponding change in the amount of sediment removed from the beach, then the beach features may change and the equilibrium is upset

5

What are inputs into an open coastal system

Energy from:
Waves
Tides
Sea currents

Sediment
Geology of the coastline
Sea level change

6

Transfers in an open coastal landscape

Erosions processes
Wind and water transport

7

Components in an open coastal system

Erosional landforms and landscapes.
Depositional landforms and landscapes.

8

Outputs in an open coastal system

Dissipation of wave energy.
Accumulation of sediment above the tidal limit.
Sediment removed beyond local sediment cells.

9

Example of a negative feedback mechanism in a coastal environment

A beach in dynamic equilibrium.
Sediment is erodes from the beach during a storm.
Sediment is deposited offshore forming an offshore bar.
Waves now forced to break before reaching the beach disposing their energy and reducing further erosion when they reach the beach.
When the storm calms, normal wave conditions rework sediments from the offshore bar back to the beach.

10

What do some negative feedback mechanism act to do

Stabilise coastal morphology and maintain a dynamic equilibrium

11

What kind of landscape is a coastal landscape

Geomorphological

12

What do coastal landscapes consist of

A constantly changing assemblage or erosion and depositional landforms; they are the result of continuous change in the elements of a coastal system

13

What do the processes operating in coastal systems that continually shape the coastal landforms create

Distinctive landscape features

14

What does the coastline itself consist of

A series of different zones where specific conditions prevail that depend on factors such as tides, wave action and the depth of the sea

15

What are the 5 different zones in a coastline

Backshore
Foreshore
Inshore
Offshore
Nearshore

16

Where is the backshore

The area between the high water mark (HWM) and the landward limit of marine activity

17

When does changes to the backshore usually take place

Only during storm activity

18

Where is the foreshore

The area lying between the HWM and the low water mark (LWM).

19

What is the most important zone for marine processes in times that are not influenced by storm activity

Foreshore

20

Where is the inshore

The area between the LWM and the point where waves cease to have any influence on the land beneath them

21

Where is offshore

The area behind the point where waves cease to impact upon the seabed and in which activity is limited to deposition of sediments

22

Where is the nearshore

The area extending seaward from the HWM to the area where waves begin to break

23

What 3 zones are included in the nearshore

Swash zone.
Surf zones.
Breaker zone.

24

What is the swash zone

The area where a turbulent layer of water washes up the beach following the breaking of a wave

25

What is the surf zone

The area between the point where waves break, forming a foamy, bubbly surface, and where the waves then move up the beach as swash in the swash zone

26

What is the breakerzone

The area where waves approaching the coastline begin to break, usually where the water depth is 5 to 10m