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Aa Hodder Geography > Human Case Studies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Human Case Studies Deck (39):

The Case Study of shortage of housing: an improved Slum

The Tower of David, Caracas in Venezuela - the tallest slum in the world.
Almost 70% of the population live in informal housing.
The building was a concrete shell until 2007 when squatters moved in.
A thriving community developed: shops, hairdressers, Internet cafe and gym.
They also installed electricity, bricked the walls and got running water.
Some commentators have praised the ingenuity of the squatters for constructing a self contained settlement out of nothing.
In 2014 the process of relocating the 1200 families began.


Case study of lack of urban services: Recyling

Old car tyres cut up to make sandals.
Washing machine doors used as kitchen bowls.
Drums used as storage.
Glass bottles collected and returned to stores for filling.
Food waste fed to animals of composted for vegetable plot.
Tin cans and old oil drums are used to make charcoal, stoves, lamps etc.


Case study of transport issues: Bad Traffic

Lagos Nigeria.
Suggests regular gridlock as 7 million passengers move around in private cars, buses and motorcycle taxis known as ‘Olaf’s’.
Hoped that the seven-line urban rail project under construction will ease traffic.


Case study of urban resurgence : fashionable 'quarter'

Jewellery quarter in Birmingham has experienced bust and boom.
Early 1900s: over 20,000 people employed in jewellery making, metal working and hallmarking.
Combination of foreign competition, reduced demand and the bombing of the area during the Blitz led to decline in the areas fortune.
Decline continued in spite of a few regeneration attempts in late twentieth century.
Wasn't until 2000s that large scale improvements began to be seen: warehouses and factories converted into apartments and townhouses.
30 restaurants, bars and cafes helped crested vibrant hub for young businesses and professionals.


Case study of urban resurgence: technology

East London Tech City.
Home to a cluster of independent start up companies as well as global organisations like Facebook, Amazon and Google.
Area is fashionable for its independent shops, galleries, markets, bars and restaurants.


Case study of urban resurgence : redevelopment

The New York City High Line.
1.5 mile long section of elevated rail track built to carry goods to and from Manhattans largest industrial district.
Abandoned in 1980s as Lower West Side underwent a period of decline.
Successfully redeveloped in 2000s as an elevated park and walkway lined with trees, grasses and shrubs.
Site is used for artistic commissions and cultural events.
5 million annual visitors have increased spending times in local shops and cafes, as well as encouraging real estate development.
High line has given life to s piece of industrial infrastructure as a public green space and functions like a green roof.
Porous pathways allows water to drain cutting down on the amount of storm water that runs off site into the sewer system.
Planting design inspired by the self-seeded landscape that grew on the elevated rail tracks in the 25 years they were derelict.


Case study of urban resurgence : redevelopment

The New York City High Line.
1.5 mile long section of elevated rail track built to carry goods to and from Manhattans largest industrial district.
Abandoned in 1980s as Lower West Side underwent a period of decline.
Successfully redeveloped in 2000s as an elevated park and walkway lined with trees, grasses and shrubs.
Site is used for artistic commissions and cultural events.
5 million annual visitors have increased spending times in local shops and cafes, as well as encouraging real estate development.
High line has given life to s piece of industrial infrastructure as a public green space and functions like a green roof.
Porous pathways allows water to drain cutting down on the amount of storm water that runs off site into the sewer system.
Planting design inspired by the self-seeded landscape that grew on the elevated rail tracks in the 25 years they were derelict.


case study for the regeneration policy in 1980

Urban Development Corporations: London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC).

effective in attracting new businesses to run down areas and improving the environment of UDC areas.
By mid 1990s, they attracted over £12 million in private sector investment and created 190,000 jobs nationally.

Did little to tackle social problems.
Local people complained they had little involvement in the process and they did not benefit from the housing created in the London Docklands.


Case study for the regeneration policy in 1990s

City Challenge: Hulme City Challenge Partnership, Manchester.

Local authorities has to bid for funding resulted in more successful regeneration schemes.
Gave equal importance to buildings, people and values.
1997 data revealed that City Challenge had improved over 40,000 houses, created 53,000 jobs and reclaimed 2,000 hectares of derelict land.

Resources were thinly spread over large areas, which had previously received government funding based on need no longer received funding becsuse their bid was unsuccessful.
Money lost preparing bids by local authorities who did not win funding.


Case study for regeneration policy in 2000s

New Deal for Communities: Devonport Regeneration Company, Plymouth.

Between 2002 and 2008 NDC areas saw an improvement in 32 of 36 core indicators spanning crime, education, health, worklessness, community, housing and the physical environment.
Evidence found that gaps with both national and local authority levels had generally narrowed.

The NDC strategy delivered greater positive change for place - rather than people - related outcomes.
Relatively little net-change was achieved for education and worklessness.


Case study of development of other functions rather than retail in city to attract people

2007, Exeter saw opening of a mixed use city centre redevelopment scheme which replaced a post war developed that was dated and unattractive for modern retailers.
The Princessshay redevelopment contains 60 retail units, 122 flats, unique visitor attraction (city's medieval underground passage), tourist info centre, 10 cafes/restaurants.
New public art pieces and hosts events and festivals.
Developers were keen to instil a greater sense of security and vibrancy to the area and a key element of this was the promotion of city centre living and a night-time economy. Creates a sense of place.


Case study of Gentrification

Houses sold for a pound in Liverpool in 2013.
One innovative way to regenerate a city without displacing low income families has been to sell off run down houses to individuals or families at low prices.
Sold 20 derelict homes in places like Kensington for £1 each.
There was a number of basic rules to prevent people abusing the scheme:
Buyers had to show they were capable of doing the house up to a reasonable standard.
Has to sign an agreement to live in the property for 5 years and not sublet it.
There was about 1000 applicants for each house.
Scheme has now been extended to other houses and shops in the area with the overall aim to improve the built environment and make it a thriving community again.


Case Study for Fortress Landscape

Fortress LA.
Surveillance and exclusion measures are seen to be at their most extreme in American cities.
Los Angeles has developed a reputation as a city built on fear.
The author Mike Davis has detailed how paranoia and fear of gangs, minorities and the homeless has led to a refashioning of the urban landscape which includes:
Gated communities.
Armed response security units in residential areas.
Shopping malls surrounded by staked metal fencing and an LAPD surveillance tower.


Case Study of the Effect of the Urban Heat Island

London’s skyscraper the ‘walkie-talkie’ was responsible for melting car parts.
The 525ft building has a concave design and mirrored glass caused the sun to shine intense rays of light on the pavement leading to damaged wing mirrors and plastic panelling on parked cars.
Special architecture sunshade known as a ‘brise soleil’ was fitted to prevent the problem


Case Study of Fog

Cities such as New Delhi and Beijing suffer regular winter fogs and the term ‘airpocalypse’ has been used to describe the high death toll which occurs when they trap pollutants to create a toxic smog.
People wear face masks in Beijing. In 2015 the first even air pollution red alert was declared in the city as heavy winter fog combined with polluted air.


Case Study of Coping with the Wind

The Burj Khalifa, Dubai.
The tallest building in the world (828m).
A major concern for the structure is wind stress and wind vortexes pulling the building from side to side.
The building has to withstand gusts of over 240 kilometre per hour.
A series of aerodynamics improvements had to be made.
Softened edges of building deflect the wind and prevent it from forming vortices and the entire tower was originated relative to the prevailing wind direction.
May still sway slowly back and forth by about 2m at the very top but it doesn’t suffer any of the problems experienced by skyscrapers in the past.


Case study of Skyscraper being unable to withstand the Wind

In the 1970s, people working in the 240 metre tall John Hancock building in Boston suffered motion sickness in moderate winds and over 5,000 glass panels blows out shattering on to the pavements below


Case study of Utilising the Wind

Masdar City, Abu Dhabi.
Reliance on oil in Middle East is not sustainable so the Masdar Initiative focuses on renewable energy in an attempt to diversity the future energy mix.
Hoped that the zero carbon, zero waste Masdar City will be home to 40,000 residents when it’s completely in the 2020s, providing an ultra-modern example of sustainable urban living.
Solar energy and local winds.
Central atrium of the Masdar Institute a wind tower provides cold air and a fine water mist reducing the need for air conditioning.
The Siemens headquarters is position to face the direction of the wind, making use of a Venturi tunnel underneath the building to maintain a cooling airflow through specially designed wind channels. Thanks to the Venturi effect a breeze flows up to the roof through atria in the building structure, cooling public spaces without any energy costs.


Case study of photochemical fog

Los Angeles has a problem with photochemical smog for decades because of the high density of vehicles, frequent sunshine and basin topography that traps photo-oxidant gases at low levels. The chemical PAN linked to vehicle emissions has been deemed particularly hazardous and is linked to the famous Los Angeles ‘eye sting’.
Numerous attempts have been made to improve public transport in the city but LA is large and sprawling so it’s easier to get around by car.
Consequently, more recent strategies have included stricter city vehicle emissions standards and the Clean Air Action Plan (CAAP) for the port of LA.


Case study of dealing with a Flood problem

Los Angeles managing its river.
Los Angeles river channel is designed to be fail-safe.
Devastating flash flooding of the LA river led the city authorities in the 1930s to convert it from natural and meandering to cement and controlled.
Directing the river through the built channel has helped control flooding it has removed the ecosystem services that a river typically provides.
The entire system could be paralysed if one part of the structure sustained significant damage like from an earthquake.


Case study of air pollution

Dhaka, Capital of Bangladesh is the worlds fastest growing megacity with 40.000 new migrants each year.
On bank of the Buriganga River and is an important trading centre.
Diverse economy, high literacy rate, developing infrastructure but it also has poverty, crime congestion and political violence and air pollution.
Air pollution caused by vehicle emissions and industrial practices.
Two-stroke engines used in auto rickshaws, tempos, mini trucks and motorcycles are highly polluting.
Estimated that 90% of Dhakas vehicles are faulty and emit smoke that exceeds the prescribed limit.
According to a 2011 World Bank report it is the brick-making kilns that account for 40% of the air pollution.
Kilns cause 750 premature deaths a year from cancer and cardiopulmonary disease.
In 2010 the national government ordered a shutdown of fixed-chimney kilns by 2013. As they use outdated tech to burn coal imported from India and firewood.
Facing opposition from kiln owners, government has extended that deadline several times.


Case Study of place running out of landfill space

In 2015, Beirut was plunged into a political crisis after the overflowing landfill site of Naameh, southeast of the city, was closed. The closure led rubbish collectors to pile mountains of untreated waste underneath bridges, by rivers and on the side of roads, leading to civil protests.


Case study of the global waste trade.

Guiyu in China is the town of electronic waste.
It is the worlds largest electronic waste dump site.
At its peak some 5,000 workshops recycle 15,000 tonnes of waste daily including mobile phones, computer screens and computers shipped in from around the world.
Large quantities of pollutants, heavy metals and chemicals are released into the air and local water supplies are heavily contaminated by toxic metal particles.
Locals suffer respiratory and stomach problems and children living in the area have abnormally high levels of lead in their blood.


Case Study of incineration

Since 1999 Singapore has been incinerating much of its waste and sending the incineration ash and non-incinerable waste to an offshore landfill called Semakau landfill.
The Semakau site has been formed by the construction of a dyke in the shallow sea.
It is lined with an impermeable membrane to stop leakage into the sea below.
Each cell is covered with a layer of earth once it has been filled to ground level.
Subsequent grass and trees take root to form a green landscape.


Case study of foreign water problems

2015 a report by the Central Pollution Board (CPCB) found that over half of Indias rivers were polluted.
Caused by the quantity of sewage generated by rapid urban expansion.
Survey of 27 cities found that untreated sewage flowing in open drains was causing serious deterioration of groundwater quality and subsequently human health.
Vector-borne diseases like cholera and jaundice and diarrhoea are wide spread.
Water pollution was a major cause of poor nutrition and underdevelopment in children.
According to the World Health Organisation more than 87% of people in Indias cities (compared to 33% in rural areas) now have access to a toilet, but it is the leading and incomplete sewage systems that are leading to contamination of the rivers and lakes.
The Prime Minister has made cleaning the Ganges, a river holy to Hindus, a key policy goal.
Plans for infrastructural improvements and wastewater recycling in cities across India.
In Ahmddabad the state council introduced a scheme where children are paid to use public toilets as open defection is a problem where people do not have access to proper sanitation.
Number of toilets have increased to prevent human waste running into Well's and streams, contaminating bathing or drinking water.


Case study of local water pollution

The Thames Tideway Tunnel.
Much of London is served by a combined sewerage system,collecting sewage from homes as well as rainwater run-off from roads, roofs and pavements.
The interceptor sewers (constructed following the 'great stink' of 1958) are still the backbone of London sewers today.
They are struggling to cope with the expanding population and the demand of modern day living.
During periods of heavy rain, the Victorian drainage system discharges raw sewage directly into the River Thames, killing large quantities of fish and other aquatic life and threatening public health.
In 2013, 55 million tonnes of raw sewage was washed into the river.
Thame Tideway tunnel is under construction to upgrade Londons sewage system.
Specialist tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been used to excavate a circular tunnel while also creating a tunnel wall using concrete segments.
The completed tunnel will be 25 kilometres long and up to 65 metres deep.


Case study of dereliction having an impact on human health

Research has linked proximity to contaminated derelict sites with health problems such as low birth weight infants, heart disease, cancer and respiratory disease.
Many of the industries prevalent in Glasgow during the industrial period were ‘dirty’ ones, with high usage of toxic and dangerous chemicals and environmental degradation of the surrounding areas.
Industries including shipbuilding, dye works. Tanneries, distilleries, cast iron foundries and chemicals manufacturing.


Case study of dereliction in feral

For some, derelict buildings provide a fascinating look at our architectural past.
The derelict London website includes over 3,000 pictures of London sights not normally seen by toursits.
The ‘New Statesman’ review suggests, the appeal of the website is ‘in how it seems to trace the skeleton of a dead city while it is still in apparently rude health’.
It shows how buildings have changed overtime.
Some proprieties are in even greater disrepair and some photos are taken before and after regeneration like the Lambeth Hospital Buildings.
The LHB shut in 1976 and much of the original workhouse was demolished, although the water tower survived but lay derelict.
Some of the more modern hospital buildings remain in a derelict condition until being cleared for a new housing development. The former workhouse administrative block is now a cinema museum.


Case study for land remediation

In preparation for the 2012 London Olympic a 350-hectare area of East London was ‘cleaned up’ and is now the largest new urban park in Europe.
It has 100 hectare of open land and 45 hectares of new habitats.
Over 2.2 million square metres of soil was excavated, of which nearly half was treated by soil washing, chemical stabilisation, bioremediation or sorting.
80% of the excavated material was re-used in sites.
A total of 235,000m^2 of contaminated groundwater was successfully treated.


Case study for community action

Once the centre of global car production.
Detroit’s population has fallen from nearly 2 million in 1950s to less than 1 million today.
City now has 40,000 vacant and derelict lots, compromising 1/3 of the area.
Between 1970 and 2000 over 150,000 buildings were demolished and large commercial developments built in order to try and revatalise the area but the decline continued.
Detroit community grounds are now using areas of the city for a range of small, community based activities like urban based farming.
By 2010 they converted over 6 hectares of unused land into more than 40 community gardens and micro farms yielding over 6 tonnes of produce like hay, eggs, milk, honey, herbs etc.
Much of it is produced by volunteers and students, and sold onto other community organisations such as soup kitchens.
Derelict buildings have been converted into community centres, cafes and greenhouses.


Case study of investment in infrastructure such as roads, water, sewer and electricity and services

It’s got an integrated bus system as part of the Curitiba Master Plan in the 1970s.
The extensive network of dedicated bus lanes provides a service comparable to underground or subway systems but at a cost estimated to be 200 times less.
The associated reduction in traffic has led to a significant reduction in carbon emissions.


Case study in the investment in the use of renewable energy sources

Freiburg Germany.
Solar investment subsidies are given to residents installing solar panels and ‘plus energy’ homes have been constructed which create more energy than they consume.
Low energy construction standards have been introduced in a bid to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 40% by 2035


Case study of the investment in the reduction of waste production and improvement of waste collection and recycling

The ‘Garbage that is not garbage’ scheme promotes recycling through the seperate collections of different waste components.
The ‘Garbage purchase’ programme encourages residents in the faceless to sell their rubbish back to the city in exchange for food, bus tokens and football match tickets.
The scheme has helped clean up densely populated areas that the rubbish van cannot reach.


Case study in the investment of more sustainable and affordable housing

Low carbon housing developments include the experimental BEDZED development.
Environmentally sustainable, recycled and local materials were used in their construction and the accommodation comprises a mix of social housing and private units


Case Study of remittance dilemma

Somalia, 2012.
World Bank: 40% of somalians rely on remittances to meet their basic needs.
They support economic development and people’s livelihoods.
50% of GNI and 80% of all investment in the country.
2012: concern that the money was falling into the hands of terrorists led many US and UK banks and money transfer agencies withdrawing their services.
Devastating effects and Protests organised by human rights groups supporting Somalians.
Concerns of US and UK financial institutions based on these conditions:
Informal economy, Little government regulation.
Lack of anti-money-laundering laws.
Lack of due dilligence, SARS (suspicious activity reports) for money transmitters.
Some remittances may end up in the hands of terrorist groups which receive donations from domestic and foreign sympathisers.


Case study of a global marketeer

Coca-Cola is an example of a company with a single product; only minor elements are tweaked for different markets. The company uses the same formulas (one with sugar another with corn syrup) for all its markets.
The bottle design is recognisable in every country but the size of bottles and cans conforms to each country’s standard sizing.
In Senegal, one of the poorest places in Africa, Coca Cola stands are still there and Coca Cola pay for paintwork and often for refrigeration units for vendors


Case Study of Ebbs and Flows in car production

Since 1995 the US vehicle giants Ford and General Motors have relocated much of their component assembly to maquiladora plants in Mexico to take advantage of the cheaper production costs and the non-tariff barriers that are part of NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement).
The US car industry has been revitalised by investment in new plant and technology by foreign vehicle manufacturers such as Toyota.
U.K. Lost most of its domestic car industry as part of decentralisation from the 1980s onwards. However, as a result of investment by the Japanese companies Honda, Nissan and Toyota at factories in Swindon, Sunderland and Derby respectively. The U.K. Is now one of the most productive car manufacturers in Europe.
These plants give the Japanese TNCs access to the larger and lucrative EU market, underlining the importance of free trade agreements as one of the factors in determining the locations of production.
U.K. Vehicle manufacture has been further boosted by investment by TNCs from BRIC economies, especially by Indian conglomerate Tata who bought Jaguar Land Rover from Ford in 2008.


Case Study of Trade being a ‘weapon’ in conflict

In 2006, the UN Security Council imposed trade sanctions against Iran because of its refusal to suspend its uranium enrichment nuclear programme. This severally harmed Iran’s integration into the world economy until it was recently resolved. Russians supposed backing of separatists in Ukraine has brought sanctions against them from the EU and the USA.


Case study of comparative advantage

The Umbrella City.
Umbrella around for over 3000 years, likely Chinese were first to create Umbrella and subsequently export the, via the Silk Road to Asia and Europe.
Around 70% of Umbrellas made in China.
Corner of production is Songxia, in the city of Shaoxing (described as the umbrella capital of the world)
1/2 billion umbrella made here annually in more than 1200 factories. One worker makes 300 a day.
Songxia retains its prominent position as a result of comparative ad rages:
Specialisation - all kinds of umbrellas are manufactured.
Access to domestic and international markets - good road networks connect Songxia to large population centres in China e.g Shanghai and Ningbo port to export them.
Cheap production costs - as a labour-intensive industry,umbrella manufacture in China benefits significantly from low labour costs and a flexible, local and efficient 40000 workers (female) prepared to work long hours.
Government support - local government support for the single-product city include tax incentives for producers, as well as preferential policies for all parts of the supply chain (such as fabric weaving, dyeing and printing, manufacturing of robs, poles and handles)
Songxia Umbrella Industrial Park - established with local government support to strengthen the competitiveness of the many local manufacturers and to raise the brand awareness of Songxia Umbrellas in domestic and global markets.