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Flashcards in Water soluble vitamins Deck (139)
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1

the solubility of a vitamin affects

absorption, transport, and excretion

2

is toxicity likely in water soluble vitamins

no, it can be excreted in the urine

3

how can vitamins be destroyed

prolonged heating, UV light, and oxygen

4

what are some ways to maintain nutrients

refrigeration, store in airtight containers, rinse fruits and vegetables just before using, microwave or steam in small amounts of water, chop immediately prior to eating

5

water soluble vitamins are __philic

hydrophilic

6

what are the water soluble vitamins

B and C

7

where are B and C found

in the watery component of foods

8

water soluble vitamins move directly into the __

blood

9

can water soluble vitamins move freely in the blood

yes

10

by what organ are water soluble vitamins excreted if there is excess

kidney

11

which vitamins are needed more frequently; water or fat soluble

water

12

what is the storage process of water soluble vitamins in the body

circulate freely in water filled parts of the body

13

how do vitamins differ from CHOs, fats, and proteins

they are functional units, do not yield energy, may assist enzymes that release energy from macronutrients, are measured in micrograms(µg) or milligrams(mg) instead of grams

14

the amount of vitamins useful to the body depends on

the quantity provided by the food and bioavailability

15

what is the definition of bioavailability

rate at and extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used

16

what are some factors that affect bioavailability

digestion efficiency and GI transit time
previous nutrient intake and nutrition status
other foods consumed at the same time
method of food preparation
source of nutrient(synthetic, fortified, or naturally occurring)

17

vitamins act as

precursors

18

what are precursors

substances that precede others

19

what compounds can be converted into active vitamins

provitamins

20

what is an example of a provitamin

beta-carotene to vitamin A

21

tolerable upper levels have been established for the following H2O soluble vitamins

niacin, vitamin B6, folate, choline, and Vitamin C

22

what substances act as coenzymes that assist int he release of energy from CHO and fat

thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, panthothenic acid, and biotin

23

__ assist enzymes that metabolize AA

B6

24

__ and __ help cells multiply

Folate and B12

25

thiamin is a _ vitamin

B

26

where is thiamin present

in the membranes of nerve cells

27

what is the coenzyme form of thiamin

thiamin pyrophosphate

28

what does thiamin do

converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA and converts a 5C compound to a 4C in the TCA cycle

29

what is wet Beriberi

thiamin deficiency-damage to the cardiovascular system; dilated blood vessels; kidneys retain salt and water, edema

30

what is dry beriberi

thiamin deficiency-damage to the nervous system; muscle weakness in the arms and legs