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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (115)
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1

what is energy density?

the measure of the energy a nutrient provides relative to the weight of the food(kcal/gram)

2

the calorie of a food is determined by

the amount of heat it releases and transfers to water when completely burned.

3

micronutrients such as__ are required install amounts such as__a day

vitamins/minerals, milligrams/micrograms

4

AMDR stands for

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. The ranges are Protein- 10-35%, CHO- 45-65%, and Fat- 20-35%.

5

what is the purpose of the AMDR

provide adequate nutrients and energy, and reduce the risk of chronic disease

6

do vitamins and minerals provide energy?

no

7

what are the water soluble vitamins

B+C

8

what are the fat soluble vitamins

A,D,E,K

9

what are phytochemicals and their purpose

non-nutrient compounds found in plants. Some have biological activity in the body and act as antioxidants, suppress inflammation, etc, and may protect against certain diseases.

10

what are functional foods

foods that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions. This includes whole foods, fortified, and enriched foods. Examples include whole grains-fibers, oily fish-omega 3s, and fresh fruits-phytochemicals.

11

what are DRIs

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are a set of values for the dietary nutrient intake of healthy people. They are used for assessing and planning diets. The goal is to protect against nutrient deficiencies and chronic diseases

12

DRIs include what other areas

Estimated Average Requirements(EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intakes(AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels(UL).

13

what is an EAR

Estimated Average Requirement(EAR) is the amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in ½ of the people of a given age and gender group.

14

what is an RDA

Recommended Daily Allowances(RDAs) is the average amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the needs of almost all (98%) healthy people.

15

what is an AI

Adequate intakes-(AI) are set for nutrients where there is insufficient scientific evidence to determine an EAR which is needed to set an RDA. The average amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain health. Like the RDA, the AI may be used as a nutrient intake goal for individuals.

16

what are ULs

Tolerable intake levels are the maximum amount of a nutrient that appears safe and beyond which there is a risk of adverse health effects.

17

what is an EER

Estimated Energy Required(EER) is the average energy intake to maintain energy balance for healthy body weight and physical activity.

18

a primary deficiency is caused by what

inadequate diet

19

a secondary deficiency is caused by what

a problem inside the body

20

what is a nutritional assessment

a determination of a person’s nutritional status using dietary history, laboratory tests, physical evaluation, and anthropometric data.

21

experimental studies are held

in a lab

22

Food consumption surveys measure

the amounts and kinds of foods consumed, estimates nutrient intake and compares it with the DRIs

23

Nutrition status surveys evaluate

the nutrition status of groups of people using nutrition assessment tools.

24

The Registered Dietitian Nutritionist (RDN) studies

nutritional management of diseases and medical conditions as well as disease prevention and wellness and provide medical nutrition therapy (MNT)

25

chronic disease risk factors __ over time and __

persist, cluster

26

what are the top two cases of death

heart disease, cancers. strokes come in at 5th and diabetes mellitus at 7th

27

define adequacy

providing all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health.

28

_____translate the nutrient recommendations of DRIs into food recommendations. They are reviewed and revised as needed every __ years.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans, five

29

The USDA food patterns include five major food groups which are

fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods, milk, and milk products

30

Legumes are a subgroup of both __ and __ but actually belong in the __ group nutritionally.

vegetables, proteins, carbohydrate