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Flashcards in Trace Minerals Deck (88)
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1

what are trace minerals

Essential mineral nutrients the human body requires in relatively small amounts (< 100 mg daily)

2

what are some trace minerals

Iron, Zinc, Iodine, Selenium, Copper, Manganese, Fluoride, Chromium and Molybdenum

3

Trace mineral content dependent upon

processing, and soil and water composition

4

__ and __ impacts bioavailability

Dietary factors, human body

5

are trace mineral deficiencies local

no, Wide reaching impacts due to activity in many body systems
Generally: failure to grow in children

6

what are the two iconic states of iron

Ferrous iron (reduced) Fe++
Ferric iron (oxidized) Fe+++

7

Most of body iron located in

Hemoglobin (RBCs)

8

80% of body’s iron is

Myoglobin (muscle cells)

9

__ holding protein of the muscle cells

O2

10

Fe balance maintained thru

absorption

11

what is ferritin

Iron storage protein

12

ferritin receives Iron from __ & stores in

GI tract, mucosal cells of SI

13

what is transferrin

Iron transport protein

14

what does transferrin do

Takes Iron from ferritin & transports iron to rest of body

15

what happens to iron from food after it is ingested

mucosal cells in the intestine store excess iron in mucosal ferritin

16

what happens to the iron stored in the SI if the body does not need it

iron is not absorbed and is excreted in shed intestinal cells instead. thus, iron absorption is reduced when the body does not need iron.

17

what happens to the iron stored in the SI if the body needs it

mucosal ferritin releases iron to mucosal transferrin, which hands off iron to another transferring that travels through the blood to the rest of the body

18

the absorption heme and nonheme iron partly depends on

the source

19

where is heme iron found

only in foods from animal flesh such as meats poultry and fish

20

which iron is absorbed better

heme (25%)

21

what are the sources of nonheme iron

plant and animal-derived foods

22

which iron is less well absorbed

nonheme (17%)

23

what factors enhance absorption of iron

MFP factor and vitamin C

24

what is MFP factor

Peptide factor released during the digestion of meat, fish and poultry that enhances non-heme iron absorption

25

how does vitamin C do to iron absorption

Improves non-heme Fe absorption
Iron from supplements is not influenced by Vitamin C

26

what is recommended for iron absorption

take supplemental iron between meals

27

what are some iron inhibiting factors

1. *Phytates (in legumes, whole grains and rice)
2. Vegetable proteins (soybeans, legumes and nuts)
3. Fibers
4. Oxalates
spinach
5. Ca (milk)
6. EDTA (food additive)
7. Tannins
8. coffee, tea, grains, oregano, red wine &; some F

28

absorption of Fe depends on __ aka__

lifestage and growth; More mucosal ferritin & blood transferrin made when needs are greater

29

__ delivers iron to bone marrow & other tissues

Blood transferrin

30

Bone marrow uses iron to make new

RBCs