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What is the purpose of T&D?

Training and development involves 'the acquisition of knowledge and attitudes to facilitate the achievement of career goals and corporate
objectives'. It is interconnected with performance management and knowledge management.


What does 'training' refer to?

Training typically emphasizes immediate improvements in job performance via the procurement of specific skills (e.g. computer


What does 'development' refer to?

Development, on the other hand, aims to prepare the employee for future job responsibilities through the acquisition of new experiences, knowledge, skills and attitudes (e.g. manager doing an MBA).


Which factors have caused a reduction in commitment to T&D?

Casualisation of the workforce, globalisation, perception that employee will leave after being trained (for a better job)


What is the importance of T&D?

Skilled employees = happier employees, which = increased competitive advantage for the company.


Does T&D have a role in strategic development and corporate change?

Viewed strategically, training and development can be a powerful strategic tool for:
• implementing a new policy
• implementing a strategy
• effecting organisational change
• changing an organisation's culture
• meeting a major change in the external environment
• solving particular problems


What negative feedback has been received for T&D being used for strategic and corporate change?

Training in non-unionised companies has been used to encourage multiskilling, eliminate job demarcation issues, obtain greater flexibility, increase worker accountability and link rewards
to knowledge and skill acquisition. This has led to criticism that organisations are seeking cultural control via commitment (whereby
employees can be relied on to accept the organisation's objectives,
values, working methods and performance demands)


What is the impact of diversity on T&D?

Employees can no longer be assumed to hold
similar values, attitudes and beliefs. T&D needs to be customised to the workplace.


What is the impact of equality in T&D?

The evidence suggests that organisations that promote 'equality in training and development' gain
access to a wider range of talent and enhance their organisation's flexibility. Other benefits include increased job satisfaction, improved morale, increased productivity and better intergroup relations.


When should training start?

Training starts when an employee enters the organisation. The need to orient employees and generate a feeling of belonging is critical to avoiding
problems of incorrect job instruction, labour turnover and reduced morale.


How can T&D help employees to improve?

To improve performance and avoid employee obsolescence, the employee needs further training and development. Training and development activities thus exploit the capacity for people to grow and change.


What is the relationship between T&D and HRM?

All components of HRM feed into 'improving performance'. E.g. Recruitment & Selection, Renumeration & Rewards, Induction, Performance Management, Training & Development (T&D also informs PM and vice versa).