Flashcards in Week 3 Deck (47)
Define 'verbal information'
Names or labels, facts and bodies of knowledge
Define 'intellectual skills'
Mastery of concepts and rules
Define 'motor skills'
Coordination of physical movement
A combination of beliefs and feelings that predispose a person to behave in a certain way
Define 'cognitive strategies'
Strategies that regulate the learning processes; they relate to the learn's decision regarding what information to attend to, how to remember and how to solve problems.
List the seven learning theories
Social learning theory
Goal theories (goal-setting theory and goal orientation)
Adult learning theory
Define 'reinforcement theory'
A theory asserting that people are motivated to perform or avoid certain behaviours because of past outcomes that have resulted from those behaviours
Define 'social learning theory'
A theory asserting that people learn by observing other people (role models) who they believe are credible and knowledgeable.
Explain 'reinforcement theory'
Emphasises that people are motivated to perform or avoid certain behaviours because of past outcomes that have resulted from those behaviours.
Reinforcement theory includes several processes:
From a training perspective, it suggests that the trainer needs to identify what outcomes the learner finds most positive (and negative) for learners to:
Trainers then need to link these outcomes to learners acquiring knowledge, skills or changing behaviours.
Explain 'social learning theory'
This emphasises that people learn by observing other individuals (models) whom they believe are credible and knowledgeable.
It recognises that behaviour that is reinforced or rewarded tends to be repeated.
The models’ behaviour or skill that is rewarded is adopted by the observer.
Learning is influenced by a person’s self-efficacy—a person’s judgment about whether they can successfully learn knowledge and skills.
Employees' belief that they can successfully perform their job or learn the content of a training program
Define 'verbal persuasion'
Offering word of encouragement to convince other that they can learn
Having employees who have mastered the desired learning outcomes demonstrate them for trainees
Define 'goal-setting theory'
A theory assuming that behaviour results from a person's conscious goals and intentions
Explain 'goal-setting theory'
This theory assumes that behaviour results from a person’s conscious goals and intentions.
Specific challenging goals result in better performance than vague, unchallenging goals.
Learning can be facilitated by providing employees with specific, challenging goals.
SMART goals: Specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, time-bound
Explain 'need theories'
These theories help explain the value that a person places on certain outcomes.
- Basic needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, self-actualizing needs
A need is a deficiency that a person is experiencing at any point in time.
Needs theories suggest that to motivate learning:
trainers should identify trainees’ needs, and
communicate how training program content relates to fulfilling these needs.
If the basic needs of trainees are not met, they are unlikely to be motivated to learn.
Outline the components of Alderfer's ERG needs-theory
Outline the components of McClelland's needs-theory
Belief about the link between trying to perform a behaviour (or effort) and actually performing well: the mental state that the learner brings to the instructional process
Explain 'expectancy theory'
This theory suggests that learning is most likely to occur when employees believe:
they can learn the content of the program (expectancy)
learning is linked to outcomes such as better job performance, a salary increase or peer recognition (instrumentality).
It also suggests that learning is most likely to occur when employees value the two outcomes above.
In expectancy theory, a belief that performing a given behaviour is associated with a particular outomce
The value that a person places on an outcome
Explain adult learning theory
This theory is based on several assumptions about adults.
-need to know why they are learning something.
-have a need to be self-directed.
-bring more work-related experiences into the learning situation.
-enter into a learning experience with a problem-centred approach to learning.
-are motivated to learn by both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators.
The theory of adult learning
Explain 'information-processing theories'
This theory stresses internal processes occurring when training content is learned. It highlights how external events influence learning informing the learner of the objectives to establish an expectation)
-cues such as diagrams and maps to suggest ways to
-code training content so it can be stored in memory.
Outline the seven implications of the learning process for instruction
Employees need to:
1. know why they should learn
2. have meaningful training content
3. have opportunities to practice
4. commit training content to memory
5. receive feedback.
6. learn through:
-interacting with others.
7. need the training program to be properly coordinated and arranged.
The adaption of the learning environment in which learning is to occur
Belief about the link between trying to perform a behaviour (or effort) and actually performing well; the mental state that the learner brings to the instructional process.
The ability to organise a message from the environment so it can be processed and acted upon.