How many significant figures? 222 ? 0.0123 ? 0.2050 ?
222= 3 0.0123=3 ( leading 0 are not significant) 0.2050=4 (Trailing 0 in a # w/ a decimal are significant)
0.0000000005 Scientific Notation
5 x 10-10
42 Celsius = what in Farhenheit?
F= 9/5 (42) +32 or F= 1.8 (42) +32 Answer : 107.6
96 Farhenheit = What in Celsius?
C= 0.556 x (F-32) or C=5/9 (F-32) Answer: 35.58
Absolute zero is ?
-273.15 celcius or 0 Kelvin
Hetero/Homo Pure/Mixture A glass of water with ice cubes in it?
Hetero/Homo Pure/Mixture Chicken noodle soup
Homemade sweetened ice tea with sugar?
Homo Mixture (single phase liquid, but has sugar in it)
Vodka only in a glass
A pure substance containing only 1 atom
The smallest unit of an element
On the periodic table the element carbon C has 2 numbers associated with it what are they?
Atomic Mass and Atomic number
The atomic number represents what?
The number of protons
The atomic mass represents?
The number of protons and neutrons together
An atom with the same number of protons but having more number of neutrons is called a ?
The strongest chemical bond is ?
Covalent bonds are a _______ of electrons?
Sharing of a pair
All atoms except _____ and _____ fill the outer layer of electrons with an octet
Hydrogen and Helium
NaCl has what type of bond?
_______ _________ result form the transfer of electrons from one atom to another leaving atoms with + and - charges to attract one another
Non-covalent bonds consist of:
Ionic bonds Hydrogen Bonds Hydrophobic bonds London dispersion forces Keesom forces
A weak electrostatic interaction between a hydrogen atom and 2 electronegative atoms
London dispersion forces
Very weak interactions occuring between electrically neutral molecules at close range
IA ( far left column) are in what family?
Noble gasses are which family?
VIII far Right column
Physical properties of non-metals are observed at ?
What is Avagadro's number?
6.022 x 1023
One mole of a substance is called a _______ and has units of _______
Molar Mass and has units of g/mol
How many moles are in 75 g of NaCl?
Na mass= 23, Cl mass=35 23+35=58 75/58 = 1.293 g/mole 1.293 moles in 75 g of NaCl
Polyatomic Ion ?
contains atoms covalently bonded but retain their identity within the compound
Hydrogen carbonate (bicarb)
Neutral Cl2 + 2e- = 2Cl- When a reactant gains electrons and becomes more negative. (+) or a neutral to a (-) = Reduction
Neutral atom (Na) to Na+ (+) e- when the reactant loses electrons and becomes more positive. (-) or neutral to a (+) = Oxidation
Le Chatelier's Principle
Any stress placed on an equilibrium system will cause the system to shift to minimize the effect of the stress
A functional group is?
A set of atoms bonded together in a specific way
Functional groups define______ and _______ of the compound?
chemical and physical properties
Aromatics are made up of a ______ ring?
Alkynes are a _____ bond?
Alkanes are a _____ bond?
Alkenes are a _____ bond?
R-X ( The x implies what?)
A Halogen is attached
a subset of isomers that have atoms connected by the same sequence of bonds but are different in the 3 demensional space
(Cis and Trans)
Isomer that containes a chiral center
(A carbon with 4 different groups attached)
Mirror images that are not superimposable
a steroisomer that exists as a non-superimposible mirror image
Enantiomers have the same_____, _____, ______ ?
boiling point, melting point, density
Which is usually more potent Dextrarotatory or Levorotatory?
Racemic mixture is
50% levo and 50% Detra
Dextrarotarory rotates light to the ?
Rectus decreases to the ?
Right or clockwise
Sinister decreases to the ?
Left or counter-clockwise