Week # 10 Acid-Base Balance/Respiratory Chemistries & Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Flashcards Preview

Chemistry I > Week # 10 Acid-Base Balance/Respiratory Chemistries & Arterial Blood Gas Analysis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week # 10 Acid-Base Balance/Respiratory Chemistries & Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Deck (23)
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1

What is an acid?

a molecule that donates protons (H+)

2

What is a base?

a molecule that accepts protons (H+)

3

What is a buffer?

any substance that can reversibly bind hydrogen ions

4

Name a few buffers.

in plasma: bicarb, hemoglobin, proteins

in urine: phosphate, ammonia

5

When the renal buffer system compensates for changes in pH, how long does it take to notice the compensation?

appreciable response in 12-24 hours, but max response takes up to 3-5 days

6

What is the definition of anion gap?

the difference between the major measured cations and major measured anions

(Na+ + K+) - (Cl- + HCO3-)
normal range = 7-14 mEq/L

7

What does pKa represent?

the pH at which a drug is 50% ionized

8

What is another name for non-anion gap acidosis?

hyperchloremic acidosis

9

The weaker the acid, the ______ the base.

stronger

10

The weaker the base, the ______ the acid.

stronger

11

Identify this ABG:
pH=7.21, PaCO2=40, HCO3=15.6

metabolic acidosis

12

Identify this ABG:
pH=7.34, PaCO2=28, HCO3=19

compensated metabolic acidosis

13

Identify this ABG:
pH=7.51, PaCO2=39, HCO3=31

metabolic alkalosis

14

Identify this ABG:
pH=7.1, PaCO2=55, HCO3=22

respiratory acidosis

15

Identify this ABG:
pH=7.33, PaCO2=56, HCO3=30

compensated respiratory acidosis

16

Identify this ABG:
pH=7.57, PaCO2=24, HCO3=23

respiratory alkalosis

17

What are the order and components analyzed in blood gas analysis? (i got this from the study guide, I apologize for the length)

1. Examine arterial pH: Is acidemia or alkalemia present?
2. Examine PaCO2: Is the change in PaCO2 consistent with a respiratory component?
3. If the change in PaCO2 does not explain the change in arterial pH, does the change in [HCO3–] indicate a metabolic component?
4. Make a tentative diagnosis (see Table 30–1).
5. Compare the change in [HCO3–] with the change in PaCO2. Does a compensatory response exist (Table 30–7)?
6. If the compensatory response is more or less than expected, by definition a mixed acid–base disorder exists.
7. Calculate the plasma anion gap in the case of metabolic acidosis.
8. Measure urinary chloride concentration in the case of metabolic alkalosis.

18

Which will equilibrate in solution: weak acids or strong acids?

weak acids

19

Which will go to completion in a solution: weak acids or strong acids?

strong acids

20

Which side of this equation is the conjugate base and which side is the conjugate acid?

LA + H+ -----> LAH+

LA + H+ -------> LAH+
(conjugate (conjugate
base) acid)

21

The pH, HCO3-, and H+ could be changed by what 3 things?

1. PaCO2

2. total amount of weak acids (ATOT)

3. strong ion difference (SID)
(Na+) - (Cl- + HCO3-)

22

Minute ventilation is mediated by central chemoreceptors in the brain stem. These changes are made in response to a change in ___ in the _____.

H+ in the cerebral spinal fluid

23

Are the kidneys able to eliminate acids from the body?

yes.... how nice.