Week # 15 Renal, Hepatic, and biochemistry Flashcards Preview

Chemistry I > Week # 15 Renal, Hepatic, and biochemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week # 15 Renal, Hepatic, and biochemistry Deck (55)
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1

What are the 3 mechanisms for the regulation of acid-base balance?

the buffer system, the respiratory system, and the renal system

(all three are considered buffering systems)

2

What are the predominant buffers of the renal system?

phosphate and ammonia

3

To maintain normal pH, the kidneys must perform what 2 physiological functions?

1 - reabsorb all the filtered bicarbonate

2 - excrete the daily hydrogen ion load

4

Adding acid load to the body fluids results in consumption of _______ and the formation of _______ _____?

consumption of bicarbonate

formation of carbonic acid

5

Which buffering system can permanently eliminate excess hydrongen ions?

the renal system

6

Which buffering system can restore bicarbonate ions to the blood?

the renal system

7

What are 3 ways to lose hydrogen ions?

loss from vomiting

loss from H+ in urine

hyperventilation
(the slides said hypoventilation, but that doesn't make sense)

8

What are 3 ways to gain hydrogen ions?

loss of bicarb in the GI tract

loss of bicarb in the kidneys

from protein breakdown

9

What is a buffer?

any substance that can reversibly bind hydrogen ions

10

H2O + _____ _____ _____ + H+

H2O + CO2 H2CO3 HCO3 + H+

11

What is the enzyme responsible for the reaction of CO2 + H2O H2CO3?

carbonic anhydrase

12

What percent of cardiac output goes to the kidneys?

25%

13

Approximately how many milliliters of urine is produced each minute?

1 - 2 mL / minute

14

What is the path of renal blood flow, starting with the afferent arteriole?

afferent arteriole --> glomerulus --> efferent arteriole --> peritubular capillaries --> renal vein

15

What is the main function of the proximal tubule?

reabsorption of the bulk of filtered fluid

16

What is the main function of the loop of Henle?

establishes and maintains an osmotic gradient in the medulla of the kidney

17

What is the main function of the distal tubule and collecting ducts?

final adjustments on urine pH, osmolality, and ionic composition

18

What hormone is responsible for the reabsorption of water?

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

19

What hormone is responsible for reabsorption of sodium and secretion of potassium?

aldosterone

20

Oxidation, reduction, methylation, and hydrolysis are what type of reactions?

Phase I reactions

21

Phase I reactions are known as _______ or _______ reactions.

catabolic or breakdown

22

Glucuronidation, glutathione conjugation, sulfation, and acetylation are what type of reactions?

Phase II reactions

23

Phase II reactions are usually known as ________ reactions.

conjugate

24

The ultimate goal of both Phase I and Phase II reactions is to make a more _____-______ product.

water-soluble

(for elimination purposes)

25

What is responsible for the process of Phase I reactions?

cytochrome p-450

26

What are some examples of drugs metabolized by Phase II reactions?

morphine, acetaminophen, digoxin, sulfonamides, dopamine, and epinephrine

27

Drugs with a high hepatic extraction ratio depends on what for metabolism?

blood flow

28

Drugs with a low extraction ratio depend on what for metabolism?

enzyme activity and protein binding

29

The local anesthetics, procaine, chloroprocaine, and tetracaine are all esters. How are they metabolized?

by pseudocholinesterase

(a plasma cholinesterase)

30

How are amide local anesthetics metabolized?

by liver metabolism

31

What is the most important plasma protein for binding of drugs?

albumin

32

How are benzodiazepines metabolized?

in the liver by hepatic microsomal oxidation and glucuronide conjugation

(so, by both Phase I and Phase II reactions!)

33

With the exception of remifentanil, how are opioids eliminated?

by hepatic metabolism

34

How is remifentanil metabolized?

by ubiquitous esterases in the plasma

35

What are the methods of metabolism for propofol?

hepatic glucuronate and sulfate conjugation

(Phase II reactions)

36

What are the methods of metabolism for etomidate?

ester hydrolysis (major) and N-dealkylation (minor)

37

What is the method of metabolism for ketamine?

N-demethylation

ketamine --> (N-demethylation) --> norketamine

38

Are the hepatic microsomes which contain the cytochrome p-450 enzymes responsible for metabolizing anesthetic gases?

yes, yes they are

39

How is succinylcholine metabolized?

by pseudocholinesterase

(a plasma cholinesterase. because succinylcholine is an ester)

40

How is cisatracurium eliminated?

hofman elimination

41

How is vecuronium eliminated?

primarily by biliary excretion

42

How is rocuronium eliminated?

primarily by biliary excretion

secondarily by renal and hepatic metabolism

43

Hepatic blood flow is _________ with general anesthesia and regional anesthesia.

decreased

44

Decreased hepatic blood flow will ______ metabolism of other drugs, such as phenytoin, coumadin, ketamine, etc.

inhibit

45

What are 4 important functions of the kidneys?

1. regulation of ECF/BP

2. regulation of ionic composition

3. electrolyte balance (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl)

4. acid-base balance (H+ and HCO3)

46

What is the major energy macromolecule within the body?

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

47

What is the net ATP production of anaerobic respiration?

2 ATP

48

What is the net ATP production of aerobic respiration?

34 - 38 ATP

49

During anaerobic metabolism, what does the end product of glycolysis (pyruvate) get converted to?

lactic acid

50

How much ATP is produced specifically within the Krebs Cycle?

none

(ATP is formed during glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation within the electron transport chain)

51

How many trips around the Krebs Cycle do you get with one glucose molecule?

2

(because the glucose molecule gets split into 2 parts during glycolysis)

52

ATP production by ATP synthase is made possible by what is known as an _________ _______.

electrochemical gradient

(the electron transport chain pumps hydrogen ions across the inner matrix of the mitrochondria, creating an area of higher concentration within the cell matrix. since there is more hydrogen there, it wants to get back to the inside of the cell, but the only way it can is to do work and make some ATP!)

53

What are the two enzymes responsible for transporting hydrogen ions to the electron transport chain, which can then be used to create an electrochemical gradient?

NADH and FADH

(technically it's NAD and FAD. the H on both of them stands for hydrogen. so, when they are transporting the hydrogen, you tack on the H. pretty cool, huh?)

54

Is hemoglobin a quaternary protein structure?

yup, sure is.

(meaning, it has a heme group for each of its four polypeptides)

55

Hemoglobin has _______ _______ with oxygen. Meaning, that there is a structural change with each oxygen bound, making it easier for more oxygen to bind to the hemoglobin.

cooperative binding

(this is also the reason that most hemes will completely fill with oxygen prior to unoxygenated hemoglobin begin to bind with oxygen)