Week 1: Introductions Flashcards Preview

Psych Assess. Ind Diff > Week 1: Introductions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 1: Introductions Deck (20):
1

Define personality

Enduring patterns of thought, feeling, motivation and behaviour expressed in different circumstances

2

List perspectives of personality

- Psychodynamic
- Behavioural
- Humanistic
- Cognitive social
- Genetic influences
- Trait theories

3

Describe the psychodynamic theory of personality

- behaviour is a result of clashing forces within personality
- a negative, pessimistic view of human nature.

4

Describe the humanistic theories of personality

The focus is on subjective experience and the drive for fulfilling human potential. Assumes free will and emphasises uniqueness.

5

Describe behaviourist theories of personality

Psychology should only focus on observable behaviour. Has a neutral, scientific and somewhat mechanistic view of human nature.

6

Describe the cognitive social approach

- brought thoughts and emotions into a previously behaviour based psych
- behaviour can be changed by changing our ways of thinking
- individuals are fluid and adaptive
- humans are unique and have unique ways of thinking

7

Define traits

Emotional, cognitive and behavioural tendencies that constitute underlying personality dimensions on which individuals vary

8

Walter Mischel's contributions to personality psychology

- personality tests do not predict behaviour because individuals behaviour is inconsistent over time.
- situational context and previous learning history is also important

9

Describe personality consistency

Some personality characteristics are more stablle than others.

10

Define temperament

Basic personality disposition heavily influenced by genes

11

Define heritability

The portion of variance in a particular trait that is due to genetic influences

12

What percentage does heritability estimate for personality traits?

15-50%

13

What aspects of a theorist do their theories usually reflect?

Beliefs, experience, and personality

14

List the ways we can measure personality

- Introspection
- Self report tests e.g. Big 5
- Projective tests
- Naturalistic observation
- Observing reactions
- Rorschach inkblot

15

What are the basic assumptions of personality?

- Biological components
- Shared
- Inherited
- Innate components are affected by experience: early childhood, family, and culture

16

What can affect changes in personality?

- Hormonal changes
- Traumatic events
- Dementia
- Substance abuse
- Infections
- Brain injury
- Stroke
- Heart transplant
- Mental illness like anxiety and depression

17

What are the key questions in personality psychology?

1. Good vs. evil
2. Heredity vs. environment
3. Conscious vs. unconscious
4. Personality vs. situation
5. Determinism vs. free will
6. Uniqueness vs. similarity

18

Define grand theories

- Comprehensive theories that aim to explain all human behaviour
- Reflect the theorists' beliefs, experience and personality

19

Studies of the FFM suggest that personality stabilises after this many years

30

20

What is an example of personality characteristics that are more stable over time

Inhibition to unfamiliar situations